Within rules that have been gained through learning. In

Within their study, Stanovich
and West (2000) propose that one’s thought process falls into one of two
categories which they labelled, System 1 and 2 thinking. They referred to
System 1 thinking as automatic, predominantly instinctive and somewhat ‘undemanding
of computational capacity’ (p.658). Pelaccia,
Tardif, Triby & Charlin (2011) cite that System 1 thinking uses information
which is promptly accessible and operates on the basis of an individual recognising
similarities experienced in previous situations.  Stanovich and West (2000) refer
to System 2 thinking as being a more analytical and slower way of thinking. Pelaccia et al. (2011) extend upon this
as they cite that System 2 thinking is a slow and deliberative process as a
result of an individual actively applying rules that have been gained through
learning. In essence, System 2 thinking demands more energy and effort for
cognition.

The Cognitive
Reflections Test (CRT) is commonly used to assess differences in intuitive
(System 1) and analytical (System 2) thinking styles and originally comprised
of three questions (Frederick, 2005). According to Pennycook, Cheyne, Koheler & Fugelsang, 2015, to achieve high
scores on the CRT, individuals should ‘reflect on and question the intuitive responses’
(para. 1).

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An example of one
of the questions taken from the original test is as follows:

‘A bat and a ball
cost $1.10 in total. The bat costs $1.00 more than the ball. How much does the
ball cost? ____ cents’

Here, Frederick (2005) argues that an
intuitive answer exists, and System 1 thinking is exhibited in relation to this
problem, with the intuitive answer being ’10 cents’. However, the more
analytical System 2 thinker who contemplates the question in more detail would know
that the difference between $1.00 and 10 cents is only 90 cents and not $1.00
as the problem would lead a Type 1 thinker to believe.

Toplak, West and
Stanovich (2014) created an updated version of the CRT due to the fact that
many individuals were familiar with the 3 pre-existing questions which meant
that the prior knowledge individuals may already have had interfered with the
validity of the final results. This prompted them to develop a further four
questions, with another provided by Frederick; the extended CRT now comprises
of eight questions in total. An example of one of the questions taken from the
updated CRT is as follows:

‘If John can drink one barrel of water in six days, and Mary
can drink one barrel of water in 12 days, how long would it take them to drink
one barrel of water together? ____ days’

Here, Toplak et al.
(2014) cite that the intuitive answer would be nine days, the answer an individual
engaging in System 1 thinking would believe to be correct. The right answer,
however, is four days, the answer an individual engaging in System 2 thinking
would rightfully cite is correct.  For
the purpose of the present study, the extended version of the CRT was used.

How an individual performs on the CRT can be dependent upon
a variety of factors such as their ability to think rationally or mindfully. Several
scales have been developed in order to establish a potential correlation
between scores on the CRT and individuals’ various thinking styles. Such scales
include the: Actively Open Minded Thinking Scale as proposed by Stanovich and West (2007), Rational
Experiential Inventory (Pacini &
Epstein, 1999), Temporal Discounting scale (Toplak et al. 2014), Broadbent,
Cooper, FitzGerald and Parkes’ (1982) Cognitive Failures Questionnaire and,
Brown and Ryan’s (2003) Mindfulness
Attention Awareness Scale.

The present study aims to focus on
research pertaining to the Temporal Discounting scale. The concept of temporal
discounting refers to the tendency of individuals to discount larger but later
rewards in favour of smaller, immediate rewards (Green, Myerson & McFadden, 1997).

Although the CRT can be considered
a credible predictor of scores on the Temporal Discounting task, Toplak et al. (2011)
cite that the CRT is badly in need of supplement and extension. It is
hypothesised that high scores on the CRT will predict high scores on the Temporal
Discounting task.