Within their study, Stanovichand West (2000) propose that one’s thought process falls into one of twocategories which they labelled, System 1 and 2 thinking. They referred toSystem 1 thinking as automatic, predominantly instinctive and somewhat ‘undemandingof computational capacity’ (p.658). Pelaccia,Tardif, Triby & Charlin (2011) cite that System 1 thinking uses informationwhich is promptly accessible and operates on the basis of an individual recognisingsimilarities experienced in previous situations. Stanovich and West (2000) referto System 2 thinking as being a more analytical and slower way of thinking. Pelaccia et al. (2011) extend upon thisas they cite that System 2 thinking is a slow and deliberative process as aresult of an individual actively applying rules that have been gained throughlearning.
In essence, System 2 thinking demands more energy and effort forcognition.The CognitiveReflections Test (CRT) is commonly used to assess differences in intuitive(System 1) and analytical (System 2) thinking styles and originally comprisedof three questions (Frederick, 2005). According to Pennycook, Cheyne, Koheler & Fugelsang, 2015, to achieve highscores on the CRT, individuals should ‘reflect on and question the intuitive responses'(para. 1).An example of oneof the questions taken from the original test is as follows: ‘A bat and a ballcost $1.10 in total. The bat costs $1.
00 more than the ball. How much does theball cost? ____ cents’ Here, Frederick (2005) argues that anintuitive answer exists, and System 1 thinking is exhibited in relation to thisproblem, with the intuitive answer being ’10 cents’. However, the moreanalytical System 2 thinker who contemplates the question in more detail would knowthat the difference between $1.00 and 10 cents is only 90 cents and not $1.00as the problem would lead a Type 1 thinker to believe. Toplak, West andStanovich (2014) created an updated version of the CRT due to the fact thatmany individuals were familiar with the 3 pre-existing questions which meantthat the prior knowledge individuals may already have had interfered with thevalidity of the final results. This prompted them to develop a further fourquestions, with another provided by Frederick; the extended CRT now comprisesof eight questions in total.
An example of one of the questions taken from theupdated CRT is as follows:’If John can drink one barrel of water in six days, and Marycan drink one barrel of water in 12 days, how long would it take them to drinkone barrel of water together? ____ days’Here, Toplak et al.(2014) cite that the intuitive answer would be nine days, the answer an individualengaging in System 1 thinking would believe to be correct. The right answer,however, is four days, the answer an individual engaging in System 2 thinkingwould rightfully cite is correct. Forthe purpose of the present study, the extended version of the CRT was used. How an individual performs on the CRT can be dependent upona variety of factors such as their ability to think rationally or mindfully.
Severalscales have been developed in order to establish a potential correlationbetween scores on the CRT and individuals’ various thinking styles. Such scalesinclude the: Actively Open Minded Thinking Scale as proposed by Stanovich and West (2007), RationalExperiential Inventory (Pacini &Epstein, 1999), Temporal Discounting scale (Toplak et al. 2014), Broadbent,Cooper, FitzGerald and Parkes’ (1982) Cognitive Failures Questionnaire and,Brown and Ryan’s (2003) MindfulnessAttention Awareness Scale. The present study aims to focus onresearch pertaining to the Temporal Discounting scale. The concept of temporaldiscounting refers to the tendency of individuals to discount larger but laterrewards in favour of smaller, immediate rewards (Green, Myerson & McFadden, 1997). Although the CRT can be considereda credible predictor of scores on the Temporal Discounting task, Toplak et al.
(2011)cite that the CRT is badly in need of supplement and extension. It ishypothesised that high scores on the CRT will predict high scores on the TemporalDiscounting task.