Weekly and cryptoanalysis subdivisions and uses mathematical formulas and

Weekly Activity
Cryptology is the science
that includes cryptography and cryptoanalysis subdivisions and uses
mathematical formulas and different algorithms when doing these operations.
The encryption of various messages, texts according to a certain system deals
with the transmission of these messages in a secure environment to the
recipient and the transmission of the transmitted message.The Roman emperor
Caesar used first in history for military communications purposes. Thus, the
cryptology knowledge has emerged and it has been improved continuously until
modern times. The main purpose of this science is to deliver a
cryptographically message to the authorized person safely. Even if the
unauthorized person reaches this message, they should not decrypt and
understand the message. Modern cryptography is defined as the transition from
cryptography to art. Modern cryptography algorithms, which are as a milestone
of computer and communication security, are short but complex. All algorithms
are used in modern encryption techniques. They are decrypted when using
linked keys. There are two types of encryption systems in modern cryptology:
symmetric key systems (asymmetric key cryptography) and asymmetric (public
key systems). In symmetric key cryptography, the sender and receiver have the
same encryption key. The sender encrypts using plain text symmetric key, and
the real receiver resolves the encrypted message with the same key. In public
key systems, the encryption algorithm is not secret and there are two types
of keys, unlike symmetric encryption. The key pairs are called the public key
and the private key. The public key uses to encrypt the message and the
private key can decrypt that message. On the basis of open-key systems there
are deep mathematical calculations. These systems are usually based on
complexity theory (which can be seen in number theory) of difficult problems.
This means that the public key, which is one of the key pairs required for
encryption, can not be computed using known techniques, as is known.

Completed Tasks for the
Week
General gains on
cryptology is obtained. The structures of cryptosystems is understood. The ideas about
the encryption algorithms have been acquired.The slides about cryptology are
examined.
 

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Week 2

Date

 

Tasks Planned for the
Weeks   Understanding  what is data security and why it is
important.In addition,to start the firewall project.

Weekly Activity
Data security is the practice of
keeping the data protected from being corrupt and unauthorised access.
Whether using Facebook to chat with your friends, watching YouTube videos or
doing any important online work must be awared by users. Data security is the practice of
keeping your data protected from being corrupt and unauthorised access.Data
security consists of three basic elements called “confidentiality”,
“integrity” and “accessibility”, where access to
unauthorized or unauthorized access to information as a type of entity,
access, use, modification, disclosure, removal, modification and damage. If
one of these three basic security elements is damaged, a security weakness
occurs.
Privacy:
personalization of information and protection against unauthorized access.
Integrity: The
unauthorized identity of information is not changed.
Accessibility:
Information is accessible and available when it is needed to be trusted.
Knowledge is one of
the most critical assets of modern institutions. For this reason, it is
extremely important to protect confidential business information and personal
data against unauthorized uses. At the same time, such information should be
available for use by those who need it. The most important element of the network structure,
firewalls, control the routing of traffic between networks with the rules
processed on it. The main reason for choosing corporate firewalls is to
protect them from external network threats, analyzes the incoming traffic,
compares it with the rules defined on it, sends the traffic inhibition or
warning according to the result. It allows traffic if it believes it is not
harmful, or if it does not required blocking the traffic.
 

Completed Tasks for the
Week Research on data
security was managed. Firewall project is started. Participated in the conference on cloud
technology in TUBITAK.

 
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Week 3

Date

 

Tasks Planned for the
Weeks
Working on TCP/IP and
Firewall
 

Weekly Activity
This week start with a excellent seminar in Medipol University
which is about 6G.Big names from big companies presented significant
informations. It was a unique experience to participate in that program. I also have the
opportunity to do more extensive work on the firewall this week. More detailed reviews
were made. TCP/IP is the basic protocol * package of the internet. Since TCP
/ IP, which controls the flow of data over the Internet, is created by
assembling many protocols, we call it the protocol package. TCP deals with
the “Points to note in point-to-point data transfer” part of this
protocol package, while IP deals with “Specifying the path to move
data”. Basic
services of TCP / IP;
– DNS (Domain Name
System)
– SMTP (Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol)
– POP (Post Office
Protocol)
– FTP (File Transfer
Protocol)
– Telnet (Terminal
Emulation)
– NEWS
Firewall is a
software-based system that controls the communication between the local
network and the Internet. Our local area is under the control of the firewall
system that comes from the internet or from the local area. The purpose of
this system is to protect the data on our local network, to protect it
against any dangerous activity that could come from the outside world and
possibly make it impossible to find the perpetrator.
Firewall systems usually
have a simple set of rules. For example; To drop all kinds of data packets
that want to access the local area directly from the outside world, to not
interfere with any packet that wants to access the outside world from the
local network. We can decide together some basic rules together. For example,
any package coming directly from the outside world should be discarded. If
any package is allowed to enter directly, even for an innocent purpose, a
malicious hacker can hide any harmful work he or she has done using this path
in this seemingly innocent way. It can reach its evil goals by using this
path. So our basic rule must be very precise and rigid. No direct package from
the outside will enter !.
But on the other hand, it
is also imperative to allow some requests to enter. Because some parts of the
corporate network such as web server, ftp server, mail server have to respond
to requests from the outside world. If so, we must create an intermediate
region that we can define neither as the inner world nor as the outer world.
This zone is usually called the Demilitarized Zone word DMZ, which means the
demilitarized zone.
Entrance into the
internal network from the DMZ is strictly not allowed. Because a hacker can
capture the DMZ by catching some of the exploits of the limited rights in the
DMZ. This point should not find a way to go in again. We understand from this
information that some hackers are CIA, NASA, etc. Attacks on their web sites
often do not mean that they can infiltrate very confidential information. One consequence of the
information provided so far is that the firewall is actually some sort of
router.
 

Completed Tasks for the
Week
Participated in seminar
and more extensive work on firewall has been made.
 

 
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Week 4

Date

 

Tasks Planned for the Weeks
Understanding types of Firewall and the operating systems of
these types.Researching the academic articles about these subject and
perceive them.

Weekly Activity
F?rewall is one of the various ways of protecting the local
network from the internet network. In general we can talk about two types of
firewalls; Types that prevent data traffic, and types that allow data traffic.
While it is essential to block data flow in some firewall types, it is
important to arrange and limit data traffic in some cases. Generally, strings
are arranged to prevent unauthorized access to the network from outside.
Access from the outside to the network is restricted while access from the
network is free. Some plugins only allow e-mails traffic, while others allow
different  data transmission, blocking
services (such as FTP, NFS, X-Windows) and some types of communication that
might be problematic. Such choices and access permissions are entirely based
on the preferences of the users.F?rewall’s main purpose is to hurt the
network to prevent those who want to infiltrate. Generally, firewalls for
companies and data centers are a common security method. The strings create a
kind of gateway for security and control. In addition, if you want to connect
to the system with modem, FIREWALL also has the possibility to control and
monitor this connection.The use of various user access control and authorization
mechanisms along with firewalls (such as a one time password) is a factor
that enhances the security of the local network. Firewall provides extra
features in this regard, including the ability to identify and use user
passwords and privileges, and to hide the traffic between networks.
 
Types of Firewalls;
 

Packet Filtering Firewall:
 
Packet Filtering is the most common and easiest method for small
and simple sites and networks. However, due to its many disadvantages, it is
not preferred over other species. Basically, an Internet gateway establishes
a packet filtering router and then makes necessary settings in the router to
block or filter the protocols and addresses. While access to the system is
blocked from the Internet, Internet access is usually released from the
system. However, the router may allow limited access to the systems and
services depending on the security plan. Access and traffic are often blocked
for services that may be dangerous, such as nis nfs and x-windows.
 
– Dual-Homed Gateway Firewall:
Packet Filtering is the most common and easiest method for small
and simple sites and networks. However, due to its many disadvantages, it is
not preferred over other species. Basically, in an Internet network, a packet
filtering router is established and then the router makes the necessary
settings to block or filter the protocols and addresses. While access to the
system is blocked from the Internet, Internet access is usually released from
the system. However, the router may allow limited access to the systems and
services depending on the security plan. Access and traffic are often blocked
for services that may be dangerous, such as nis nfs and x-windows.The
dual-homed gateway type f?rewall provides the ability to separate the traffic
of the information server from incoming and outgoing data to and from the
network. The information server is placed on the subnet between the gateway
and the router. Assuming that the gateway provides the appropriate proxy
services for the information server (such as ftp, gopher, or http), the
router can prevent direct access to the firewall and expose the access to the
firewall. This placement of the information server is a safer method because
it does not allow intruders access to the information server and prevents
access to the network systems with the double-sided gateway mechanism.
 
– Screened
Host Firewall:
It is more flexible than Dual-Homed F?rewall. However, as
always, the flexilibity provides lack of security. The application gateway
only needs one network interface. The proxy services of application gateways
can pass telnet ftp and other data packets for some proxy in the network
system. Router filters and pitches are the protocols that should be considered
as they control access to application gateway and network systems. Unlike the Dual-Homed Gateway Firewall, the application gateway
in this system requires only one network interface and does not require a
separate subnet between the application gateway and the router. This
situation is more flexible but more insecure. For example, less dangerous
services such as ntp may allow network systems to pass through the router. If
subnetting systems require dns access to internet systems, the dns protocol
may be able to access this subnet.
 
Screened Subnet Firewall:
Screened Subnet Firewall
is the combination of Screened Host Firewall and Dual-Homed Firewall.
 
Integration modem and Firewall:
 
In many networks, access to the network’s modems is possible via
the telephone line. This is a potential backdoor vulnerability and completely
disables the protection installed by the firewall. The way to prevent such
situations is to collect all access to the modems at the entrance of a single
secure master modem. The master modem entry configuration can be performed
through a terminal server that is designed to connect the modems to the
network.
 
Modem users first connect to the terminal server, then access
other systems. Some terminal servers in this way also provide additional
security features that can restrict connections to private systems.
Alternatively, the terminal server may be a host to which the modems are
connected.The connections made from the modems should be monitored and
secured as long as they are open to a number of threats, such as those from
the Internet. For this reason, creating the main modem server outside of the
firewall is a safe method, since the connections to be made with the modem will
pass through the firewall.In addition, the enhanced access control capability
of the application lifecycle can be used to verify the access rights of users
connected to the modem, such as from the Internet. The packet filtering
router can also be used in the internal system to prevent connections from
the main modem server.

Completed Tasks for the Week
The types of firewalls have been examined and the operating
systems of these types have been investigated. Read academic articles about firewall usage and some videos were
watched about this subject.

 
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Week 5

Date

 

Tasks Planned for the Weeks
This
week is aimed at examining smart card technologies and their types. Working on classification of smart cards that
can be used in public key infrastructure and e-signature systems and analyze
and understand the algorithms of these systems
 

Weekly Activity
Smart cards are credit card sized with an embedded microchip
with processor, RAM and ROM memory. It is a plastic card that has different
technologies such as magnetic stripe, bar code, contactless radio frequency
transmitters, and can have the processing power required for different
applications when it paired with a reader. Controlled accessibility allows
personal and business information to be viewed by authorized personnel. Data
transfer is a technology that is becoming more and more widely used day by
day due to the convenience of transportation and the convenience of
transportation. Today, access control, electronic commerce, authentication,
privacy is very common in many applications that require privacy.Smart cards
can be classified according to electronic circuit structures, data
transmission type and size. Smart cards can be classified according to data
type as follows,
 
MEMORY CARDS
Those with safety equipment
Non-security equipment
 
PROCESSING CARDS
Crypto processor
Non-cryptographic
 
There are two main classes, “contact” and
“contactless” according to the microchip on the smart cards. Some
cards may offer two separate microchips on contact and contactless interfaces.
Such cards are called hybrid cards. The type of card that this feature is
combined on the same microchip is called the dual card.
 
When using a contact smart card, the card must be inserted into
the card reader. This allows a direct connection to the conductive area on
the card surface.
 
Contactless smart cards are passed by an antenna so that they
can perform an operation. These are plastic credit cards. The only difference
is that a microchip and an antenna are embedded in them. These components
allow the card to communicate between the antenna and the connection element
without requiring a physical contact. The use of contactless smart cards is
an ideal solution for public transport and coin-operated systems where
operations need to be done very quickly. In contactless smart cards, the
distance between the reader and the card must not exceed 10 cm.
 
Smart cards that can be used in public key infrastructure and
e-signature systems are included in the cryptographic class. These smart
cards can be defined as durable, portable computers with programmable areas.
Smart cards are useful for systems with data security, identity
confidentiality and mobile user needs. The main technical features of these
cards are as follows:
-It is known as microprocessor. (8, 16 and 32 bit models are
available.)
-It has an operating system. (ACOS5, ACOS6, etc.)
-RSA, DSA, ECDSA asymmetric algorithms that can run the
auxiliary crypto processor has.
-The operating system and the crypto library are stored in the
ROM memory of the microcontroller.
-It has enough EEPROM memory to store crypto keys and
certificates. (Preferably 8 Kb or more)
-Once the private keys are inserted into the card, they can
never be removed.
-It is mandatory to enter the PIN code on the card to process
with the private key in the card.
 
A smart card with the above features provides the following
services.
-Encryption and decryption on the card
-Signing on the card and confirming the signature
-Holding private and open keys on the card
-Write information into the card
-Password protected card
-Smart cards have private and public areas. Private area key
generation, signing, decryption, etc. are done, access to this area is
prohibited. The general information is written in the open area and the
information on the card can be seen by means of an intermediate software and
reader.
 
The dimensions of the smart card are determined according to the
international ISO-7810 standard. The ISO-7816 standard also specifies the
physical characteristics of the card, including features such as heat range,
flexibility, position of electrical contact and how the microchip will
connect with the outside world.
 

Completed Tasks for the Week
The general conception of smart card technologies is grasped and
getting deep knowledge about conception of these systems. In addition, algorithms
of smart card technologies have been studied and articles have been scanned.
 

 
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Week 6

Date

 

Tasks Planned for the Weeks
Overview
Week (General repetitions and finishing touches)

Weekly Activity
On the first day of the week we held a meeting with Gül
Ayd?n,who is the head of the test and evaluation department.We introduced our
projects and they were informed about them.Immediately after the meeting I
interviewed my manager and got information about the last missing parts.After
these meetings I went to work to make the final touches of the project.I
concentrated on hardware and software firewalls. I solved their structures
and comparisons.The closure of missing parts and the achievements of this
week can be summarized as follows;
-Hardware firewall, the total cost is easily calculated at
first. There are device and update prices. In the case of software firewalls,
the cost of hardware, operating system, database, and backup should also be
taken into consideration while the cost is being calculated.
-Hardware Firewall has high performance because it is specially
designed. Software firewall performance depends on many parameters.
-Hardware Firewall, security is very high because it is custom
designed. Only certain ports are open. In software firewalls, security
vulnerabilities arise from operating system and other applications.
-Hardware Firewall is easy to install. In general, operations
can be done through a single interface.
-Hardware Firewall, updating is easy. A single firmware is
installed. Software firewalls are also hard to update. All applications need
to be updated separately.
-Hardware Firewall is generally not upgradeable. Software
firewalls can also be upgraded with hardware limits. (Processor, RAM, disk,
etc.)
 
Hardware Firewalls
Hardware firewalls are systems that run by being integrated into
the router between a server and the network. The ability to manage traffic
and distinguish which server is appropriate for which filtering rules makes
it the ideal choice for systems with multiple servers.The most important
advantages of hardware firewall are speed and security.Hardware firewalls can
handle more traffic volume than they are designed for faster response
times.Also these firewalls with its own operating system is less prone to
attack. This reduces security risks.
Software Firewalls
Software firewalls are installed on individual servers and
disconnect each connection request to determine if the request is valid.
Despite their disadvantages in terms of performance, they also have many
advantages. Some of these important advantages are;
-Ease of use
-Flexibility
-Full control of traffic.
 

Completed Tasks for the Week
Extensive information about the firewall obtained and archieved.The
missing parts in the project were discussed and these deficiencies were
closed. In the meantime, detailed information about firewall software was
gathered and algorithms were investigated with the help of my manager.

 
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