We are proposing a solution to a problem that we all have been witness-ing in our daily lives. Everyday, we see a huge amounts of water being wasted and we can’t seem to do much about it. In this article, we are in-troducing a way to use water in a smart manner. The system being pro-posed can be easily installed. We will install some sensors in the tank which , in regular intervals, will indicate the water level and this informa-tion will be uploaded directly to the cloud from where we can directly keep a check on the water levels at all times via the connected online system.
The functioning of the valve will be controlled by itself consider-ing the water levels. If it is low, the valve shall be turned on automatically and vice versa.Research Paper Semper 2INTRODUCTION: Water is a vital resource for life, and its management is a key issue nowadays.Information and communications technology systems for water control are currently facing interoperability problems due to the lack of support of standardisation in monito-ry and control equipment. This problem affects various processes in water manage-ment, such as water consumption, distribution, system identification and equipment maintenance.The main motive of this technique is to use water in such a subsequent way so as to ensure that everyone gets the equal amount of water without any wastage of water and also, to make sure that there are enough resources for the future generations. Here, we will store the drinkable water in a tank from where, it will be distributed to various other places making it a well organised manner of water distribution. We will be using Ar-duino MEGA as a main controller in order to get all the parameters like level of water in all the tanks and filters.
After that, the data will be analysed and processed. The con-troller will do the analysis based on the information obtained from the sensor and it will take a decision of controlling the solenoid valves. We will also get the analytical infor-mation on one protected system using cloud.Smart Water Management: In order to bring about a change in the water sector, the consumers of the same have to play a major role in it. The water sector operates in a complex interaction between water resources and the socio-economic system.
To ensure the management of water in an efficient way, we have to have open mindset about adopting more open reference architectures and standards. This has been a problem under the desirable paradigm of an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). This approach could enable interoperability, making it easier for developers to upgrade current solutions and integrate and adopt innovative ones. Water Management Model: To upgrade the current methods and adopt new innovative ones in the vast community we are living in, we have come into a smart water management model.
This model in-volves no human supervision and works completely on the sensors installed. We have explained the model in detail below: Main Tank: This is the main storage source. We collect the drinkable water from the resources. There is an Ultrasonic sensor which provides all the details of water level in the tank.
All this data is fed to the controlling unit for further manipulation.Our IOT based system consists of two solenoid valve, Ultrasonic sensor for level mea-surement, controller, flow rate sensor and sensors for water quality check like pH, con-ductivity. The block diagram of the designed system is given in fig. 1Research Paper Semper 3a.
Power supply: In this system, we need a power supply of 3.3V for Arduino board. Power Supply of 5V for pH, Conductivity sensor, the Water level sensor/ ultrasonic sensor, Water flow sensor and Wi-fi.
12V for water solenoid valve. b. Micro-controller: The Arduino Uno is used as a microcontroller in this system, it has 14 digital input/output pins of which we are using 6 pins for connecting sen-sors-pH, conductivity, ultrasonic, Water flow rate and solenoid valves, and can be used as PWM outputs, a USB connection, a power jack and a reset button is also present. We are interfacing Wi-Fi module ESP8266 for giving it an internet based approach. c. pH meter: The pH meter is used for the quality check if water is safe for drinking.
A balanced pH level is very important for human health; it should be approximately equal to 7. We are using ETP306 as it is compact and even can be placed in sun-light. It gives Full range pH reading from .
01 to 14.00. It gives a Single reading and continuous reading modes. pH meter is shown in figure 3.d. Electrical conductivity : Electrical conductivity is also an indicator of water quality. It measures free chlorine without sample pretreatment. It does not have messy and expensive reagents needed.
Conductivity data can detect contaminants, determine the concentration of solutions and determine the purity of water. It is Compact in size. Conductivity sensor measures conductivity by AC voltage applied to nickel electrodes. These electrodes are placed in a water sample and reading is obtained.
Conductivity sensor is shown in figure 4.e. Water level sensor : Water level sensor will help us decide if we have enough quantity of water to be supplied. If the tank is empty water flow and a quality check will be on hold and if the tank is full then, water can be distributed after a quality check.Ultrasonic sensor HC-SR04 is used to measure distance in the range of 2cm-400cm with an accuracy of 3mm. The ultrasonic sensor module works on the natural phenomenon of ECHO of sound.
f. Water flow sensor : For continues, water flow rate measurement YF-S201 is used. Connections required for this flow rate sensor with respect to Arduino’s is very min-imal. It has operating temperature range of -25°C – 80°C which is wide enough for our application to operate successfully.
Water flow sensor is shown in figure 6.g. Water controlling valve: A solenoid valve is used as a water controlling valve, it is a simple electromagnetic device that converts electrical energy directly into linear mechanical motion. A solenoid valve is the combination of a mechanical valve and basic solenoid. So a solenoid valve has two parts namely-Electrical solenoid and a mechanical valve. Solenoid converts electrical energy to mechanical energy which operates a mechanical valve that is to open, close or to adjust in a position. The solenoid valve is shown in figure 7.
h. Wi-Fi Module: After all the parameters are measured and checked the information has to be sent online so that it can be monitored remotely. For this purpose, wifi module is used.
It helps us make this system real time. The ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module is a self-contained SOC with integrated TCP/IP protocol stack that can give any micro-controller access to your Wi-Fi network. The ESP8266 is capable of either offloading Wi-Fi networking functions from another application processor or hosting an application. Wifi module is shown in figure 8.Research Paper Semper 4Algorithm: Step1: Read the analogue data of Ultrasonic sensor.
Step2: Manipulate that data into distance. Step3: Apply the results to control the Solenoid valve.