Vapouremissions during fuel loading and dispensingare major concern for secondary organic particles which eventually contributeto PM pollution. It was highlighted during the meeting that vapour recoverysystems (VRS) can be easily and cost effectively implemented andrecommendations for action have already been passed by MoPNG to concerned OMCs(Letter dated 2nd August 2017). VRS not only ensures emissionreduction but reduces the product losses and is important for efficientoperations by OMCs. Following are the recommendations based on the implementationstatus as per the CHT (2017)and CSIR-IIP’s consultation with public sector OMCs including IOCL, BPCL andHPCL on 8th August 2017: a. Prioritiseand expedite the VRS stage one1 implementation inDelhi: VRS Stage oneimplementation needs to be prioritised for the state of Delhi and NCR. It isfound that supply locations at Bijwasan (BPCL) in Delhi is still in planningstage.
The implementation of VRS stage one at retail outlets is not completewithout implementation of stage one at the supply locations (CHT, 2017)and hence this should be implemented on priority basis. The infrastructure atsupply locations need to be converted from top loading to bottom loading whichwould require major changes in piping, pumping and tankers. Table 1.
Status of VRS stage one for supply locations in Delhi Supply location OMC Status Bijwasan BPCL In planning stage, expected completion by Mar 2019 Tikrikalan HPCL Commissioned Tikrikalan IOCL In operation Source: CHT (2017) b. Notifythe Department of Legal Metrology for immediate clearance to implementation ofVRS stage two2 at Retail outlets inDelhi: Currently VRSstage two in Delhi exists at 55% of the ROs above dispensing capacity of 300kilo litres per month and at 20% ROs of smaller size. Expedite the VRS stage 2implementation in Delhi by notifying the urgency of action to the Department ofLegal Metrology under the Department of Consumer Affairs; Ministry of ConsumerAffairs, Food and Public Distribution. The department is creating unnecessaryhurdles in clearance as there is no evidence suggesting that VRS system affectsconsumers in any way (CHT, 2017).With the clearance for the Department of Legal Metrology, implementation of VRSstage II in Delhi can be completed by OMCs by 2018. Table 2.
Status of VRS stage two for retail outlets in Delhi Retail outlet (RO) size Number of total retail outlets in Delhi Number of total retail outlets with VRS stage two >300 kilo litre- MS/ month 155 85 <300 kilo litre- MS/ month 232 47 Source: CHT (2017) c. Install theleak detectors at ROs in Delhi: OMCs will need to install leak detectorsat all ROs using Submersible turbine pump (STP) for dispensing fuel. Leakdetectors are not required for ROs using suction type dispensation. Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) is currently implementing firstphase of Fuel-efficiency norms which cover the lights vehicles below 3.5 tonne.Additionally, for heavy duty vehicles, the norms have been notified by BEE. Althoughthese are not addressed in detail under this task force, it is speculated thatimproved fuel efficiency norms can have a positive impact on air quality.
Additionally,the role of new and emerging technologies would be very important in future asthey could disrupt the business as usual, paving a way for cleaner fuels. Forinstance, the Shell is piloting a 5 tonne per day(TPD) plant in Bangalore for liquefaction of municipal waste to transport fuelsand this could pave a way for converting waste into transport fuels in future. Roleof electricity is crucial towards clean transportation and electric vehiclerelated interventions are being addressed under the task force for CleanTransportation. 3.4 Clean Fuelsfor Households Ensuring hundredpercent access to clean energy, Piped Natural Gas (PNG) for urban households and LiquidPetroleum Gas (LPG) to rural households, is priority for the Government ofIndia. The task force members differ on LPG/ PNGpenetration in households in Delhi NCR and it is speculated to be anywherearound 90%. It is speculated that 100% or more penetration, on papers, (SeeAnnex. 5 for more details) could imply that some of the LPG is being divertedfor commercial use.
Delhi and Haryana have banned used of kerosene but UP is requiredto ban it. Use of polluting fuels such as wood and kerosene is especiallycommon with households below poverty line (BPL) who cannot afford clean fuelsdespite availability and access. BPL households in NCR would therefore requiretargeted subsidies for switching to cleaner cooking fuels.
Followingrecommendations are made for the domestic sector- a. Ban kerosene for domestic use in the state of UP in NCR area: It is recommended that following the similarsuite as Government of Delhi and Haryana, Government of UP may consider banningkerosene for domestic use in the NCR area. b. Targeted smartsubsidies for BPL households in Delhi NCR It is recommended that targeted smart subsidiesare devised for Below Poverty Line (BPL) Households in Delhi NCR with 100% taxexemption for LPG and PNG 3.5 Clean Fuelsfor Commercial Sector Delhi has ahuge potential for converting organic waste into energy products.
Biogasgenerated from bio-digestion or bio-methanation of organic waste fractions canbe directly used as fuel or can further be converted into CNG (bio-CNG) orelectricity. Organic waste content of municipal solid waste (MSW) generatedwithin the jurisdiction of five local bodies of Delhi is estimated3 to be 4000-5000tonnes per day (Talyan et al, 2007; DPCC, 2014; MCD, 2015; MohitSharma, 2016). It is further estimated that 54% of total MSWin Delhi originates from the residential areas (which has 58-78% organiccontent), 18% from main shopping centres (~16% organic content), and 10% fromvegetable markets (~ 97% organic content)4. Total potential for biomass generation fromorganic waste originated from all these source is therefore estimated to be 320,000- 400,000 m3 (74 – 91 MW) biogas5 (Hulgaard, 2015; PC, 2014). Assuming 35%efficiency in biogas to electricity conversion, potential for electricitygeneration would be 26-32 MW which is 0.5% of Delhi’s peak demand (6,526 MW). Commercialbuildings such as hotels, restaurants, institutional areas, including theresidential societies, can benefit from processing their own waste for energy.Biogas generated from such bio-methanation plants can be utilised for followingpurposes- • Itcan partly fulfil the energy demand of waste generators: for street lighting andcooking fuel in kitchens at the hotels/restaurants or community kitchens• Itcan be upgraded to bio-CNG (by purified and compressing it) and can be used asa transportation fuel utilising the already exiting CNG infrastructure in Delhi• Itcan be further converted into clean electricity using gas based electricgenerator and fed into the electricity grid (although the net efficiency ofoperation is much lower compared to options above).
Organicfractions of waste are not segregated at the moment, due to lack of properwaste management in the city. For any such intervention, segregation would be aprerequisite as contamination with other types of waste can significantlyundermine the efficiency of energy recovery process (Kumar & Sil, 2015). IOCL haspiloted the small scale bio-CNG plant (250 kg food waste per day) with highermethane content (>80%) compared to conventional biogas plants (60-70%) inoperation (IOCL, 2017). Detail ofthe plant are attached in the Annex. 4.
Following recommendation is made forwaste-to-energy from food waste in Delhi. a. Setup Waste to energy facilities for large generators of food waste: It is recommended thatcommercial premises and residential societies may set up WtE plants to treatorganic waste and convert it into useful energy products. To start with, largecommercial areas and residential societies can be identified by IOCL forsetting up bio-CNG facilities on demonstration basis. Time required for settingup the WtE plant is 9 months. Inaddition, following recommendations are made for the commercial sector topromote the use of cleaner fuel in hotels, restaurant and mobile towers- b.
Ensuresupply of PNG to commercial sector: The PNG supply should beensured to commercial buildings such as hotels, restaurants to reduce theirdependence on polluting fuels such as coal. c. Mandate use ofgas in mobile towers: For all mobile towers and any such high intensive usage of DG setslocated in Delhi-NCR, option of hybrid technology (through gas injection kitsin DG sets) could be utilised. Wherever the PNG infrastructure is available,utilization of gas as a backup fuel in mobile towers is feasible and concernedagency, such as CPCB, should issue a directive for mandating use of gas inthese mobile towers. Table 1.
Execution details for respective sectors with agencies involved in implementation, timelines and status of actions Recommended action Steps required* Implementation agencies Status Industry Fuel switch in NCR industry Ensure gas supply to Industry clusters in NCR MoPNG; IGL; GAIL PNG supply to industrial clusters is feasible as per GAIL Competitive pricing for Natural Gas (NG) to industrial areas on priority MoPNG; IGL; GAIL Taxation strategy for cleaner fuels under GST MoPNG; MoF Notify the list of approved fuels in NCR regions CPCB, SPCBs for Haryana, U.P. and Rajasthan Facilitate City Gas Distribution (CGD) projects in adjoining NCR towns MoPNG Power Priority status for cleaner generation Provide a push towards cleaner power generation by notifying priority status to gas based generation in Delhi NCR (Short-term) MoP; CERC; SERCs; NRLDC Amend the Indian Grid Electricity Code (2010) giving priority to cleaner sources of power generation in dense urban agglomerations (Long-term) MoP; CERC; SERCs Extend the scheme for utilisation of the stranded gas based capacities and provide priority support to stranded capacities based in dense urban agglomerations MoP, MoPNG Increase share of RT solar in electricity-mix of Delhi Scale up the NDMC scheme to rest of Delhi MNRE Transportation Introduce BS-VI compliant fuel in Delhi and NCR Introduce BS-VI compliant fuels in Delhi NCT by pooling national capacities MoPNG, OMCs Already Notified by the Ministry http://pib.nic.
in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=173517 Introduce BS-VI compliant fuels in Delhi NCR by pooling national capacities MoPNG, OMCs Introduce HCNG demonstration plant at DTC bus depots in Delhi Set up a compact reformer plant at one DTC depot (4 t HCNG/ day) IOCL Notify HCNG use as an automotive fuel MoRTH, GoI Notify standards for HCNG as Fuel BIS Safety Clearance for HCNG on-vehicle storage cylinders PESO Application submitted to PESO in 2012 by IOCL Achieve 10% biofuel blending Achieve 10% blending in transport fuels nationally by 2022 CHT, OMCs Promote LNG as transportation fuel Formulate a strategy for promoting LNG as transportation fuel MoPNG, MoRTH Prioritise ongoing implementation of vapour recovery systems for Delhi Prioritise and expedite the VRS stage I at supply location in Bijwasan, Delhi BPCL Notify the Department of Legal Metrology for immediate clearance to VRS stage II at all retail outlets in Delhi Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution Complete VRS stage II in remaining 255 retail outlets in Delhi OMCs Install leak detectors at ROs (STP type) in Delhi OMCs Households Ban kerosene for household use in Delhi NCR Notification by UP govt. for banning kerosene use by households in NCR area UP Govt. Kerosene banned in Delhi and Haryana Smart subsidies are Below Poverty Line (BPL) Households Devise targeted smart subsidies for Below Poverty Line (BPL) Households with 100% tax exemption for LPG and PNG MoPNG, PSUs Commercial Set up waste-to-energy from food/organic waste at commercial buildings and residential societies Identify areas for setting up waste to bio-CNG demonstration plants IOCL, Hotels/ restaurants, RWAs Promote cleaner fuels in Hotels/ restaurants Ensure supply of gas to commercial premises within NCR GAIL/ IGL Promote cleaner fuels in mobile towers Mandate use of gas in telecom towers in Delhi NCR CPCB and concerned SPCBs *Colour coding: Technology/ infrastructure Policy Regulation 4. Implementation Plan Actions recommended by taskforce are captured in the Table 1 with the key execution details (such as stepsrequired, implementation agencies involved, timelines for completion of tasks,status) required for their implementation. The individual actions fall into oneof the categories: policy action, technology/infrastructure, or regulatoryaction and have been colour coded accordingly in the table. Also, the short-termactions which deserve immediate attention of policymakers and implementationagencies, are highlighted in the table.
The Figure 3 outlines theimplementation plan of the Clean Fuel Task Force and highlights various actorswho are responsible for policy/regulatory changes and implementation requiredto bring the recommended actions to fruition. 1 Stage one covers the fuel load and unloading via tankers at supplylocations and retail outlets respectively2 Stage two covers 3 CII-ITCCESD 2017 estimation based on cited references4 Restis composed of construction and demolition waste, hospital waste and industrialwaste5 Inan optimised system, methane content of biogas could be as high as 50% andbiogas generation varies from 70-90 m3 per tonne of organic waste