Two men originally created the U. S.
Federal Republic: Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. Alexander Hamilton,
who was from New York, was also the representative of the Northern industrial
and banking states. He had strong ties with the English and still believed in
ideals such as those of Thomas Hobbs, an English political philosopher, who
believed that “human nature is evil therefore strong government is required” (INCLUDE CITATION OF TEACHERS
NOTE). Hamilton created the Federalist party in support of his thoughts
on power and how it should reside with the government at the expense of the
other original creator of the Federal Republic is Thomas Jefferson, a Virginia
native who represented the Southern Agricultural states. He had ties to France
and believed in ideals taught by Jon Joc Russeau, a French philosopher.
Jefferson started the Republican party to oppose the Federalists and support
his ideas of how power should reside with the people and states. The
federalists created several federal districts under president John Quincy Adams.
Adams appointed James Madison as Secretary of State and created the Judiciary
Act of 1791 which gave authority to congress and secretary of state to force
the president to carry out appointments to the federal judicial branch.
he was succeeded by Thomas Jefferson in 1800, Adams appointed federalist judges
the “midnight judges” to ensure the federalist influence in the government out
of fear of losing control of congress. Jefferson hated the judicial branch for
being the maximum authority figure and because of the little checks and
balances on it. He especially detested the fact that the judges were appointed
their positions for life. Jefferson ordered Madison to not deliver appointment
orders knowing that appointers will sue him. These orders given by Jefferson started
the “William Marbary vs. James Madison” case in 1803.
Marbary suing James Madison forced Madison to deliver appointments to the
Supreme Court. The Chief of Justice John Marshall, who was a radical federalist,
presided over the case. Jefferson knew that Marshall was known for ruling in
favor of power to federal government over states’ rights. He wanted Marshall to
rule in favor of Marbary so he could ignore the ruling on purpose. Jefferson
did this because he knew the supreme court didn’t have the power to force him
to act upon appointments despite the fact that Marbary had rights to his
appointments. However, the Judiciary Act of 1791 gave authority to the Supreme
Court to issue “Rights of Mandanas,” an order from the court that forces
government officials to perform the duties of office. However, the president is
not authorized to do so by the constitution which means that the Judiciary Act
of 1791 would be considered unconstitutional.
Supreme Court struck down this congressional law and gave more power to the
court. The “Midnight judges” were only one of the three main problems Jefferson
faced during his presidency. Jefferson also had to deal with Napoleon and his
French empire during the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. The U.S. wanted to use the
Mississippi River for trade and wanted to double its land size. During the
negotiation with the U.S., France was being forced into war by England in
Europe and had no choice but to accept the terms for the purchase. After the Louisiana
Purchase, the Federalists were upset at the outcome and feared the future
expansion of the Republican party at the expense of the Federalists. The
leaders of the Federalists held a meeting in Essex, New Jersey and called themselves
Here the Federalist leaders agreed that if the
New England industrialists continued to lose power to the southern agricultural
sector, they must secede from the U.S. union. War between England and France
forced the two countries to blockade each other’s ports. This affected the
Northern states trade with the British and the Southern states trade with the
England became very aggressive and seized French
and American ships and cargo. One of these ships, the U.S.S. Chesapeake, had
U.S. sailors that were forced into English service. This made Jefferson respond
with an “Embargo Act” that banned trade on British goods, which infuriated the
federalists. On the day of the election of 1808, Jefferson steps down from presidency
and James Maddison becomes president. During the campaign, the “Embargo” is the
number one topic. So, the U.S. Congress passed “Macon’s Bill number two” to try
and motivate Great Britain and France to stop seizing U.S. ships.
Bill stated that the first nation to recognize the U.S. principle of “Natural
Ships Natural Goods”, the U.S. will form an alliance with that nation and
declare war on its enemies. At this time, the U.S. was expanding into the Ohio
Valley which was Shawnee territory. The Shawnee chief, Teumseux “The Prophet,” was
in an alliance with the British and sent “War Hawks” to attack the U.S. However,
the uprising was put down by Col. William Henry Harrison.
discovered that the Shawnee war hawks were given weapons by the British in
Canada which lead to the U.S. Congress to demand war on Britain. The War of
1812 began as the English came to occupy the Ohio Valley. They eventually
invaded Washington D.C. and burned it to the ground. Col. Andrew Jackson from
South Carolina started the Southern Theater of operations. While he was
building an army to defend the Southern coast, he encountered the Indian
problem of the southern frontier.
Indians attacked Ft. Mims in Alabama and massacred many people. Jackson
fortified his defenses of New Orleans and began the battle of New Orleans in
January 1814 where he defeated the British. The English settled the war with
the U.S. and everything is back to “status quo antebellum,” or the state of
existence before the war.
and New England merchants are suffering due to the war. So, the Essex Junita
issues a threat to Maddison that he must end the war or New England will
secede. The threat arrives to the White House just as the war was already
ending and makes the federalists look like traitors. This pretty much ended the
Federalists party. From 1815 to 1830, the U.S. is a one-party system called the
to the devastation of the war of 1812, Europe had become vary reliant of
American agricultural goods like wheat and cotton. This increased the value of
southern agricultural goods and the value of the property that goods like wheat
and cotton were being farmed on. The North had little industrial competition
now that English complications in Europe has gone down and was seeing a great
increase in revenue. This began the industrial revolution, which made goods
that were at one point considered luxury into available every day commodities.
New England, merchants built water-powered textile mills changing how
manufacturing was done. The south had people called Artisans who created easy
to use mechanisms to make tasks on a farm less difficult. During
the War of 1812, the Bank of the United States had suspended payments in “hard
money” or “specie,” which means gold and silver coins. When the war ended, the
bank continued to give only paper banknotes (money) to redeem notes issued by
state banks with paper only.
The new banks also adopted these practices,
issuing paper money more than the amount of specie in their safes. This sketchy
economic plot was short lived as people were comfortable to conduct business
with paper money and refrain from asking that banks give them the gold and
silver that was supposed to back it. If large numbers of people or banks that
had loaned money to other banks began to demand gold and silver, the banking
system would fall because there was no longer enough hard money to support the
amount of paper money the banks had put into circulation. The inflation of the
economy had reached its climax, sending the U.S. into its first depression
called The Panic of 1819.
This depression didn’t faze the entrepreneurs
and inventors of that time though. The cotton gin, created by Eli Whitney, is
just one example of things manufactured that helped with economic growth and recovery
that also changed American life for the better. The transportation revolution moved
the U.S. civilization forward, making it faster to ship goods across country.
This lead to a new economic power struggle between North and South. This gave
birth to the three economic classes in the U.S.: the elite who either inherited
their money or were new upcoming entrepreneurs that have gained economic
statues, the middle class- who values things like work and education as well as
their status, and wage workers who formed their own class of poor people living
in heavily populated and industrialized areas.
1820 to 1861, a sectional strike emerged from both the industrial North and the
agricultural South in an attempt to preserve a balance of power between them to
prevent one section form drafting laws in their favor. This started the
Missouri crisis of 1820. The question at the time was if Missouri would be a
pro-agricultural state or a pro-industrial state. Representative John Tallmadge
introduced a bill that would outlaw slavery in Missouri. If this happens, the
pro-industry sector will be able to out route the South in the Senate.
Another question at that time was: can Congress
outlaw private property? Slavery at this point becomes a constitutional issue.
Senator Henry Clay from Kentucky, known as the “Great Compromiser,” convinced
the U.S. to allow Maine to enter as an industrial free state and Missouri will
enter as an agricultural slave state. This later led to the 36-degree 30-minute
compromise line in Missouri. North of the line will be free industrial states.
Any state South of the line will be a slave state.
the election of 1828, president Andrew Jackson, who was loved by the lower
class and hated by the upper class, won by the first ever presidential
landslide. He made the “Tariff of Abominations,” which was taxation on imported
goods during the 1800’s. It provided revenue as a main source of government. Artificial
price controls were used to protect domestic markets and trade goods. Other
nations retaliated by imposing tariffs of their own products.
England manufacturers convinced Congress to pass Woolens Bill number one, which
imposed tariffs on British imports to the U.S. The South opposed this because
they feared Britain would tariff southern U.S. cotton. Vice President John C.
Calhoun defeated the bill. This led to Woolens Bill number two, which promised
that the south could impose tariffs on everything. Jackson then threatens to invade
South Carolina. Henry Clay convinced South Carolina to withdraw articles of
secession and he also convinced northern representatives to end the bid for
tariffs. This started off the negative turmoil for the south and north for
purely economic reasons.
second great awakening in New England was a religious effort to correct
immorality of the U.S. This gave birth to the Abolitionist movement. This
movement included religiously radical people who were led by William Lloyd
Garrison, the author of “The Liberator”. They called for the destruction of the
south, or at least whatever it takes to end slavery.
the 1830’s, slavery is now both an economic issue and a moral issue from the
northern perspective. Nat Turner, an escaped slave from a plantation in North
Hampton County, Virginia, was helped by the Abolitionists to form a small army and
returned to Virginia. He started a slave rebellion that resulted in 66 deaths. Thanks
to the Abolitionist, more slaves would now move North and gain their freedom
because free states would not return them as slaves, breaking constitutional
law and outraging the south.
A. Douglas from Illinois proposes to turn Kansas and Nebraska into states. This
is known as the “Bleeding Kansas,” or Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1855. Abolitionist
and Pro-slavers rush into Kansas to vote. This resulted in a small civil war.
John Brown, the poster child of the Abolitionist movement, kills several
pro-slavers and fleas back up north to conduct raids in the south.
In 1857, Brown lead a raid on a U.S. army
arsenal called “Harpers Ferry.” He was then arrested for treason and executed.
By this time the southern states are convinced that the north is planning on
attacking soon. Another case that threw more wood in the fire between north and
south was “Dred Scott vs. Sanford” in 1857. Dred Scott was a slave owned by an
army general who he traveled with to Wisconsin.
owner died in Wisconsin leaving the brother of the army generals wife to be the
only executor of the state. The wife’s brothers name was Sanford and he was an
abolitionist who wanted to free Scott. He argued that Scott should have been free
when moving to Wisconsin. The case went to the Supreme Court where the Chief of
Justice was Roger Taney who was pro-states’ rights. Dred Scott could not sue in
the U.S. court system because he was still property and not a citizen. If he
could not sue, then the court cannot free him. This brought up the point that
congress cannot outlaw private property. The Missouri compromise was there for
void because it was not considered constitutional. This was a huge victory for
the South and states’ rights. The South rallied around this.
1858, senatorial races in Illinois was nationally focused on because the
Republican party nominated Abraham Lincoln for senator. The Republican party
was created in 1855 and 1856 because of Kansas and the northern Abolitionist.
The election was between Abraham Lincoln vs. Stephen A. Douglas, a Democrat.
were a national party that represented both people form the North and South. Both
candidates made one another appear to be against Dred Scott and against
slavery. From the Southern perspective, both candidates oppose Dred Scott. When
the presidential election of 1860 occurred, it proved to be a repeat of the
Illinois senatorial elections after the southern delegates refused to vote for
Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union in 1860. In February
1861, eleven more states followed South Carolina. The south elected Jefferson
Davis as president of the Confederate states. He he immediately demanded
negotiation of independence from Lincoln. Lincoln refused, and the south seized
federal institutions in Ft. Sumter, South Carolina which became the site of the
first hostilities and eventually became the civil war in 1861 to 1865.
Was the civil war inevitable? I would have to
say yes it was. There was too much fueling the difference between the north and
south. Whether it be economical differences, trade differences or even morality
differences, there was just too many opposite opinions between the two side for
a war not to happen. Did that bloodshed make any sense? I don’t think so. I
feel that at some point it could have been negotiated. But with radicalism and
an entire race in shackles, I can see how the war got out of hand.