Tomeasure the COPD disease, the stage of which needed to be noticed.Stage0 – At risk: Treatment is not necessarily needed in this stage, as the COPD isnot actually been developed. Patient may have the symptoms of coughing andnoticeable protective secretion of the mucus membranes. Do heed the warning anddo some prevention as once COPD is developed, it can’t be cured.
The diet andexercise routine need to be renewed and change to someway that can improveoverall health. Smoking is necessary to be ceased.Firststage- Mild: Symptoms include chronic cough and increased mucus production maybe developed but not noticed by people.Secondstage- Moderate: Shortness of breath may be experienced in addition to thecough and mucus. Long-acting bronchodilator may be needed. Symptoms are morenoticeable.
Thirdstage- Severe: Severe symptoms may occur from time to time. Normal functioningis difficult. Corticosteroids, other medications or oxygen therapy is needed.Forth stage- Very severe: Symptoms become intenseand everyday tasks is harder to be complete. The eruption can belife-threatening. Surgical treatment is needed.(Healthline,2016) COPD can’t be cured. However, through the treatment,medications or lifestyle changes, the symptom of which can be eased, the chanceof complication will become lower and the quality of life and overall healthwill be improved.
If the COPD remains untreated, heart problems and worserespiratory infections may happen as a result. COPD is not an acute illness butit takes time to develop. Also, COPD is not contagious. COPDcan be prevented before it starts. (Lung.ca, 2014)Lifestyle changes:Ceaseto smoke is the best way to prevent COPD as smoking is the biggest cause of COPD.
Quitsmoking can help prevent complications and slow the progression of COPD. Also,lung irritants such as air pollution, chemicals, fumes, dusts and second handsmoke should be avoided as they can contribute to COPD. Following an eating plan that the nutritional needscan be met as the patient may have trouble eating enough due to the symptomssuch as fatigue and shortness of breath. As a result, the calories andnutrients that body needs may not be completely absorb, which can worsen thesymptoms and risk for infections will become higher.
Smaller portion and morefrequent meals is recommended. Patient should also rest before eating, andconsume some vitamins or nutritional supplements. Physical activity isrecommended as the muscles that help breathing can be strengthen and theoverall wellness can be improved.
(Nhlbi.nih.gov, 2017)Medicines:1. BronchodilatorsAbronchodilator is used as a way to open the airway passages and makes breathingeasier.as it relax the muscles around the airways. Short-actingor long-acting bronchodilators are prescribed to be used depends on theseverity of COPD. Short-acting bronchodilators are used as a “quickrelief” or “rescue” medication, they are prescribed when theCOPD is mild. Whereas long-acting bronchodilators can be used every day orregular and are prescribed if the COPD is moderate or severe.
2.Combination Bronchodilators Plus Inhaled – Glucocorticosteroids (Steroids)WhenCOPD is more severe, combination of medicines that includes a bronchodilatorand an inhaled steroid is prescribed. Combination inhalers contain twomedications normally given in separate inhalers, a long?acting beta2?agonist(LABA), which is a bronchodilator that widens the tubes in the lungs, and asteroid which helps reducing airway inflammation control. This combinationinhaler may make it easier to take the medication than using separate inhalers.3.Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitorsThismedication, which is in pill form, can reduce the inflammation and change mucusproduction. Generally, it is prescribed for severe COPD.
4.TheophyllineThismedicine reduces chest tightness and eases shortness of breath. It may help preventsudden eruption. It’s usually taken twice a day.5.Antibiotics and antiviralsWhenrespiratory infection is developed, antibiotics and antivirals are prescribed.
It’s taken as soon as symptoms of an infection are experienced.6.Mucolytic tablets or capsulesWhensymptoms of persistent chesty cough with lots of thick phlegm is developed,mucolytic medication called carbocisteine is prescribed. The phlegm in throatwill become thinner and easier to cough up by taking the mucolytic medications.
It’s usually taken three times a day.(nhs.uk,2016)Vaccines:1.Flu shotsSeriousproblems can be caused by the flu or influenza for people who have COPD. Therisk of getting the flu can be reduced by flu shots.2.Pneumococcal VaccineTherisk for pneumococcal pneumonia and its complications are reduced.
Pulmonary RehabilitationStrengthcan be rebuilt and wellbeing of people who have chronic breathing problems canbe improved. Pulmonary rehabilitation combine exercise training, diseaemanagement training, nutrition advice and psychological counselling.Oxygen TherapyExtraor supplemental oxygen is required as when severe COPD is developed, levels ofoxygen in blood will become lower.
As body needs oxygen to function, oxygentherapy can help patient to breath better. Oxygen is delivered through a maskor nasal prongs. Oxygen therapy can also help protecting heart and other organsform damage.
SurgerySurgery is not compulsory for everyone who develop COPD. When thesymptoms not improved from taking medicines, lung surgery is suggested.1. BullectomyLarger air spaces called bullae form when the walls of the airsacs are destroyed. Breathing is interfered with as the air spaces are solarge. One or more very large bullae from the lungs was removed in bellectomy. 2. Lung volume reduction surgeryDamaged tissue was removed from the lungs.
Lungs can work betterafter this. Also, breathing and quality of life can be improved.3.
Lung TransplantDamaged lung was removedand was replaced with a healthy lung. Lung function and quality of life can beimproved. However, the surgery can be risky.
The transplant lung may bringinfections or rejections that people must take anti-rejection medicines for therest of their lives.