Thomas gray was born december 26 , 1716 passed away july 30 , 1771. He was an english poet , letter writer , classical scholar , and a professor at pembroke college. Cambridge he is widely known for his elegy written in a country churchyard published in 1751. Some of his quotes from his elegy are ” full many a gem of purest ray serene, the dark unfathom’d caves of ocean bear: full many a flower is born to blush unseen, and waste its sweetness on the desert air ” ” where ignorance is bliss , tis folly to be wise ” ” the paths of glory lead but to the grave. ” born in cornhill on 26 december 1716 , gray was the fifth of twelve children of phillip and dorothy antrobus gray and the only survive infancy from 1725 to 1734 thomas attended eton where he met richard west. And horace walpole , west was the person most dear to gray and his death on june 1 1742 was a grievous loss to thomas . west died in the year of gray’s greatest productivity all of the work of that year was inspired either by west’s death or by gray anticipation of it. west’s death did inspire the well known ” sonnet on the death of richard west ” gray’s poetry is concerned with the rejection of sexual desire the figure of poet in his poems is often a lonely , alienated , and marginal one , also various muses or surrogate , mother figures are involved in a manner somewhat anticipatory of john keats employment of similar figures. The significance of the novel ” the sonnet on the death of richard west ” richard west born 1715 died 1742 was the son of the lord chancellor of ireland the year of 1742 of when west passed is when gray who was just beginning his life as a poet was moved to compose a sonnet. The first important are in english since the time of the milton after his friend died most of his first best work was inspired by his friends death.Robinson Crusoe ” The life of and strange surprising adventures of robinson crusoe “. the novel of robinson crusoe written by daniel defoe, is an autobiography of a man who spends many many years on an island defoe reveals the idea of the individualism through the life of his hero robinson defoe’s novels celebrates the idea of individually, what means that the character lives accordingly to his own way the novel focuses on the life of individual character robinson crusoe the main character of this novel seeks self realization, so he yearns to go his own way through life. He acts independently and as he chooses against the advice of others the idea goes with the concepts of age reason defoe’s novel is emotionless is because it was written in the age of reason it appeals to the reader’s mind and focuses on the importance of the individual. Defoe’s novel is mainly concerned with the idea of individuality show through crusoe’s life. Robinson crusoe is one level a meditation on the ” redeeming qualities offered by the labor of colonialism for the englishman, defoe suggests that hard work is the way to create a civilization out of the wilderness of the new world and to achieve god’s plan for english protestants crusoe is an englishman he overcomes nature through his work and ethic and inequality. The book robinson crusoe has been found to possess a profound allegorical significance crusoe’s many references to god, to providence to sin are extraneous to the real interest of the novel. The author daniel defoe is a believer in religious freedom the writer even published several pamphlets protesting against the king’s policies. The novel was impacted by a lot of things and events and novels that occurred during the 17th century. The story of the scottish castaway alexander selkirk, who spent four years stranded on the island of juan fernandez. As robinson in the novel was stranded on an uninhabited island he knew nothing about. Another impact on this novel is the book of an english translation by the andalusian arab muslim polymath ibn tufayl who was known as ” abu bakr” in europe he was a writer , novelist , islamic philosopher , islamic theologian , physician etc , it is also an earlier novel that is also set on a deserted island henry pitmans short book, about his escape from a caribbean pemal island misadventures . the book was published by j taylor of london his son william taylor later published defoe’s novel , defoe met pitman and learned of his experiences as a castaway. One last novel the publicised case of a real life miskito central. This novel also promoted biblical themes crusoes story is much like the parable “parable of the prodigal son” the character is also somewhat similar to jonah or job they both had their faith tested through many trials and a tremendous amount of suffering . the character was first rebellious then atones for his sins , and converts himself and other people to christianity , this novel has a lot of interesting things questions thinking about it, it’s something different then most novels The Restoration PeriodThe restoration period began in 1660 the year in which king charles II the exiled stuart king was restored to the english throne. England , scotland and wales were united as great britain by the 1707 act of union. This period was one of the increasing commercial prosperity and global trade for britain literacy expanded to include the middle classes and even some of the poor . emerging social ideas included pointless – a behavioral standard to which anyone might aspire and new rhetoric of liberty and rights sentiment and sympathy.Literature in the restoration period began 1660 to 1700 dryden was the most influential writer of the restoration for he wrote in every form important to the period these forms were occasional verse , comedy , tragedy , heroic , plays , odes , satires , translations of classical works , and produced influential critical essays concerning how ought to write these forms . restoration style of previous writers like john milton and john donne , simultaneously restoration literature continued to appeal to heroic ideas of love and honor , particularly on stage stage , in heroic tragedy the other major dramatic genre was the restoration comedy of manners which emphasizes sexual intrigue and satirizes the elites social behavior with witty dialogue.Eighteenth – century literature 1700-1745 the augustan era of writers like swift , defoe , pope , addison and steele was rich in satire and new prose forms that blended fact and fiction , such as news , criminal biographies , travelogues , political allegories , and romantic tales. Early eighteenth century drama saw the development of ” sentimental comedy” in which goodness and high moral sentiments are emphasized , and the audience is moved not only by the laughter but also by the sympathetic tears. The theatre business boomed celebrity performers flourished less important were the authors of the plays. James thomson’s poems on the seasons , beginning with ” winter ” 1726 carried on the earlier poetic tradition of pastoral retreat and began a new trend of poetry focused on natural description. Politics of the restoration the exclusion crisis in a sense created modern political parties. The tories , who supported the king and the whigs , the tories who opposed him. Once crowned king james II quickly suspended the test act in 1668. The birth of james son so alarmed to the country with the prospect of a new succession of the catholic monarchs that secret negotiations began to bring a new protestant ruler from europe to ought james.In 1668 william of orange and his wife mary ( james daughter ) landed in england with a small army and seized power an event known as the glorious and bloodless revolution james II fled to exile in france. For over 50 years his supporters ( called jacobites from the latin jacobus for james) mounted unsuccessful attempts to restore the stuart line of catholic kings to the british throne queen anne another of james II’s daughter was the next monarch 1702 to 1714. Anne’s reign was a prosperous time for british as the war of spanish succession 1702 to 1713 created new trade opportunities.As anne , like mary had no heirs so the succession was settled upon the royal house of hanover a long line of king george’s I-IV ensured is why the 18th century is known as the georgian period. We associate the term “whig” with liberalism and “tory” with conversation the principles behind these two parties remained fluid responsive to political circumstance throughout the period. Robert walpole , a whig politician that served under both king george I and george II a parliamentary seat from 1701 until 1742 walpole was a first man to be described as a “prime” minister king george III’s long rule 1760 to 1820 britain became a major colonial power home and abroad george III’s subjects engaged with a new rhetoric of liberty and radical reform as they witnessed and reacted to the revolution in france and america.