Thisglobal perspective of LA relates the four functions of LAS to support efficientland markets and effective land-use management for promoting sustainabledevelopment.Land Tenure: Land tenure can bedefined as the way people are holding the land.
More specifically, land tenureis the perceived institutional arrangement of rules, principles, procedures andpractices, whereby a society or community defines control over, access to, managementof, exploitation of, and use of means of existence and production (Dekker,2006)1. Theland tenure part of LAS deals with the allocation and security of rights inlands, the legal surveys to determine the parcel boundaries, the transfer ofproperty or use from one party to another through sale or lease, and themanagement and adjudication of doubts and disputes regarding rights and parcel boundaries. Land Value: Land valuation is a partof LAS dealing with economic dimensions of land (Dale and McLaughlin, 1999)2. Landvaluation system has its own process to approach to the value. This process isaffected by three main axes in which the first axis includes the inputscomprising legal title (legal rights), legal use, and legal location; thesecond axis deals with the constraints comprising valuation laws andregulations, valuation measure standards, code of conduct, and methodologies;and the third axis comprises the resources comprising human resources, and informationresources. All these three axes are required to produce the value (Al-Omari,2008)3. Thus theland valuation part of LAS concerns the assessment of land value andproperties; the gathering of revenues through taxation; and the management and adjudicationof land valuation and taxation disputes. Land Use: The land use part ofLAS deals with the control of land use through adoption of land-use planningpolicies and land use regulations at national, regional, federal, and locallevels; the enforcement of land use regulations; and the management andadjudication of land use conflicts.
Land use is concerned with both theformation of new units of real properties and the readjustment of the existingones involving changes in both the purposes of their use and their spatialstructure. Economically, land use can be justified in terms of landconsolidation, definition of ‘best use’, territorial readjustments (landre-organization) or imposition of restrictions (Auzins, 2004)4.Land Development: The landdevelopment part of LAS deals with the processes and institutions related tobuilding of new physical infrastructure and utilities; the implementation ofconstruction planning; public acquisition of land; expropriation; change ofland use through granting of planning permissions, and building and land usepermits; and the distribution ofdevelopment costs.The land information infrastructure provides a base for running theinterrelated systems of LAS within the four interrelated areas.
The land informationarea should be organized to combine cadastral and topographic data and therebylink the built environment (including legal land rights) with the naturalenvironment (including environmental and natural resource issues). Therefore,land information should be organized as a spatial data infrastructure at regional/federal,national, and local level based on relevant policies for data sharing, costs recovery,access to data, standards, etc. (Enemark, 2005)5.In a nut shell, LASs are the basis for conceptualizing rights, restrictions andresponsibilities related to people, policies and places.
Property rights are normallyconcerned with ownership and tenure whereas restrictions usually control theuse and activities on the land. Responsibilities relate more to a social,ethical commitment or attitude to environmental sustainability and goodagricultural activities (Enemark, 2009b)6. In theUN-ECE (2005)7document, LAS is considered as part of the infrastructure that supports goodland management. It is further stated that LAS should be treated as a way to anend, not an end in itself.
Itis evident from the above discussion that LAS covers a range of processes aimingfor arrangements of rights in land and better management of land within socialnorms and values of a society. All these processes are influenced by newdevelopments in technology and users’ needs with changing societal demands.Therefore, all the important elements and indicators concerning LAS processesincluding land tenure, land value, land use, and land development must beoutlined and then analyzed from quality point of view. This analysis will helpto model the changing role of LAS within country’s social, cultural norms andvalues as per users’ needs. In order to define quality parameters for LAS, itis essential to understand the functions and components of LAS before going tooutline the contributing elements and indicators for analyzing the quality ofLAS. Functions & Components of Land Administration SystemAbrief overview of cadastral and land administration systems is presented in theprevious section. From prior discussion it is clear that LAS deals with implementationof policies and laws for the management of land rights, land value, land use,and land mapping.
Land administration systems reflect the social relationshipbetween people and land which is recognized by a community or a State (Van derMolen, 2004)8.LAS is implemented by a Stateto implement policies for recording and managing all rights in land. 2.
3.1 Functions of Land Administration SystemThemain functions of LAS includes land tenure, land value, land use, and landdevelopment. These functions are interrelated and the interrelations appear throughthe fact that the actual conceptual, economic and physical uses of land andproperties influence land values. Land value is also influenced by the possiblefuture use of land as determined through zoning, land use planning regulations,and permit granting processes. And the land use planning and policies will, ofcourse, determine and regulate future land development (Enemark, 2004)9.The fourfunctions of land administration system (land tenure, land value, land use,land development) are different in their professional focus, and are normallyundertaken by a mix of professions, including surveyors, engineers, lawyers,valuers, land economists, planners, and developers. Furthermore, the actualprocesses of land valuation and taxation, as well as the actual land useplanning processes, are often not considered to be part of the landadministration activities. However, even if land administration istraditionally centred on the cadastral activities in relation to land tenureand land information management, modern LAS must be designed to deliver an essentialinfrastructure that encourages integration of the four functions (Enemark, 2009a)10.
Assaid, all the above functions are interconnected. The interrelations appearthrough the fact that the actual conceptual, economic and physical uses of landand properties influence land values. Land values are also influenced by thepossible future use of land determined through zoning, land use planning regulations,and permit granting processes. And the land use planning and policies will, ofcourse, determine and regulate future land development.2.3.2 Components of LandAdministration SystemThevariety of these LAS functions requires land administration to have variouskinds of components to deal with land.
For example, the land tenure functionrequires placing emphasis on the holding and the registration of interests inland. On-ground identification is provided by surveyors through developmentplans to assist in the regulation of use. At the same time, the land usefunction is also concerned with use restrictions imposed through the regulatoryplanning mechanisms. The land value function focuses on the economic utility ofland.
The taxation office requires the change of land use to calculate therevenue and tax for specific purposes (Kalantari, 2008)11. Inorder to fulfil all these LAS functions, the LAS has historically been organizedaround four sets of components responsible for surveying and mapping, landregistration, land valuation (Dale and McLaughlin, 1999)12 and landdevelopment as shown in Figure 2.2.1 Dekker, H.
A. L. (2006) “Inpursuit of land tenure security”, Amsterdam University Press,Amsterdam, The Netherlands2 Dale, P. F. and McLaughlin, J.(1999) “Land Administration”, Spatial Information Systems andGeostatistics Series, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
p. 1693 Al-Omari, Mouaiad. (2008) “TheRole of Reliable Land Valuations in Land Management and Land AdministrationSystems Efficiency”. FIG Working Week 2008: Integrating Generations,14-19 June, Stockholm, Sweden4 Auzins, A. (2004) “InstitutionalArrangements: A Gate Towards Sustainable Land Use”. Nordic Journal ofSurveying and Real Estate Research, Vol.
1, pp. 57-715 Enemark, Stig. (2005) “TheEmerging Land Management Paradigm – A Major Challenge for to Global SurveyingCommunity”, RICS Evening Lecture Series, RICS, London, 8 December 20056 Enemark, Stig.
(2009b) “SustainableLand Administration Infrastructures to support Natural Disaster Prevention andManagement”. Ninth United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference forthe Americas, 10-14 August, New York, United Nations Economic and Social Council7 UN-ECE. (1996) “Land administration guidelines: withspecial reference to countries in transition”, United Nations (UN),Geneva. p. 948 Van der Molen, Paul. (2004) “Goodadministration of land in Europe”. The UN – FIG and PC IDEAinterregional special forum : The development of land information policy in theAmericas, 26-27 October, Aguascalientes Mexico9 Enemark, Stig.
(2004) “Building Land InformationPolicies”. UN, FIG, PC IDEA Inter-regional Special Forum on TheBuilding of Land Information Policies in the Americas, 26-27 October,Aguascalientes, Mexico10 Enemark, Stig. (2009a) “ManagingRights, Restrictions and Responsibilities in Land”. GSDI-11 WorldConference, 15-19June, Rotterdam, The Netherlands11 Kalantari, Soltanieh Saeid Mohsen. (2008) “Cadastral DataModelling – A Tool for e-Land Administration”. Centre for Spatial DataInfrastructures and Land Administration, Department of Geomatics, School ofEngineering, PhD Thesis, p. 259, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia12 Dale, P.
F. and McLaughlin, J. (1999) “LandAdministration”, Spatial Information Systems and Geostatistics Series,Oxford University Press,Oxford.