This section will reviewthe findings of the study and relate it to the research questions as in theChapter One. The first research question is: Are theregender differences in the emotional intensity of recalled memory?The result identify clear significant differences in sad emotion betweengenders. This means that men and women expressed happy emotion equally. In thisstudy, the author found that women are consistently reported to have highemotional intensity whether it is sad emotion or happy emotion. It is confirmedthat when recall autobiography memories, women are more emotionally intense inexpression then men. This finding is supported by Gross & Levenson (1995)as they stated that women often report more intense in emotional responses (ascited in Deng, Chang, Yang, Huo & Zhou, 2016). The result also relates withDavis’s (1999) study indicated that women has shown more frequently in rememberpast event with vivid emotion than men (as cited in Wang, 2013).
Anotherfinding supports that women reported more emotionally intense memories than didmen as well as they expressed more emotional content than did males whenelaborated memories. (Grysman, Merrill, & Fivush, 2017). It can be simplyconcluded that women have expressed more emotionally intense then did men. Without delay to the second research question, this studywant to seek: Are there any differences in positive and negative emotionsbetween male and female? Current finding has operationally defined the emotional intensityas have a high or low of happy (positive) and sad (negative) emotionalintensity. The result suggest that women have high emotional intensity in expressingpositive emotion then negative emotion compared to men.
However, Brody (2000) argued by stating the contrast, women reported to have moreemotional intense particularly for negative emotions (as cited in Deng, Chang, Yang, Huo & Zhou, 2016). The author has counterbalance the arising question. Further,author has predicted that women will show a higher level of emotional intensitythan in men. Then, it is further hypothesized that there are differences in sadand happy emotional intensity between male and female. This is consistent withthe result of present study, therefore, the hypotheses are accepted. With thisintention, the author also want to analyze the meaning of the result by lookingat the emotional intensity. How intense the emotional intensity that could beconsidered as high? In this finding, the mean of sad emotional expression amongmen (M = 3.
6, SD = 1.63) and women (M = 4.6, SD = 1.
52) whereasthe mean of happy emotional expression among men (M= 4.9, SD = 1.18) and women (M = 5.3, SD = 1.29). We cansee the pattern that the mean of women’s emotional intensity were higher inboth emotion then men. The author try to interpret the intensity using the emotionalintensity of affect scale that used in this study.
As the ratingwere provided on a 7- point rating scale (ranging from 1= just a little bit, 2=a little bit more, 3= fairly, 4= sad or happy, 5= really sad or happy, 6=really really sad or happy and to 7= extremely), it can be seen that theintensity can be explain in the rating scale. For example, the mean for womenin happy emotion is (M= 5.3), therefore it could be reflected throughthe scale rating in point 5 which is, really happy.
In addition, instead looking by the numbers, theauthor also found an interesting result from different perspective. In can befurther understanding when the author analysed the findings by looking at the patternin the histogram (refer to Appendix C). In sad emotion scale, it can be seenthat male actually scored high intensity that ranging at 5 point scale, whichis most of them feel really sad when recall the sad event. In comparison towomen, when their recall the sad events, the higher intensity achieve areranging on 4 point scale, interpret only sad, which is the sad intensity areless than men. On the other hand, the result may vary due to the externalvariable that influence the study. The external variable here illustrated asthe emergence of another emotion that substitute under the negative or positiveemotion, such as in negative emotion, participant could be confuse andmisunderstood the negative emotion as angry and fear instead of focusing onlyto sad emotion.
Their narration of event recalled are extended to the externalvariable and distracted from the objective.