There employees’ average gross hourly wages in the economy

  There is aclear indication of the existence of inequality and hurdles that women have toface in the recruitment and their stay in the labor market (Agapiou, A., 2012).This has been revealed by the existence pay gap which is based on the gender ofthe individual.           The variation in payment which exists workers of both genders i.e. females andmales is obtained by subtracting the average of whole wages for women per hourand an average of the whole wage for men per hour. It is represented in form ofpercentages of men’s wages and it reflects the difference between male andfemale employees’ average gross hourly wages in the economy (Acker, J., 2012).

           The issue of difference in pay between genders is discovered to be complex andcomplicated and is caused by many factors, which can go past the scope of equalpay for equal work done (Blau, F.D. & Kahn, L.M., 2012). There are factorswhich contribute to this gender pay issue, some of these factors are traditionsand stereotypes, segregation in labor market, direct discrimination anddifficulty in balancing personal life with work.

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           The managerial and supervisory positions are mostly held by men in largenumbers and in many sectors, men are more promoted often than women resultingin their better pay. The peak of this evident in the very top management wherethere is a much lesser percentage of female Chief Executive Officers.           The issue of balancing work and private life is difficult unto women (England,P., 2010). They do spend a great deal of their time on significant unpaidduties, for example, domestic chores and taking care of children, family, andrelatives at large.

Men, on the other hand, do spend very few hours per week onhouse tasks and unpaid care, whereas employed women exhaust more of their timeon care in addition to domestic work. As a result, many women keep changingtheir paid durations to part-time whereas only a few men can do the same. Whenit comes to the changing of careers and interruption of jobs, women do thismore than men (Mandel, H. & Shaley, M., 2010).

This, in turn, has impactson the hourly wage, pensions, and future earning that they will get.There is theexistence of segregation in the labor market whereby there is lesserinclusivity of females in both labor market and education matters (Alksnis, C.& et. al, 2010). Women in most situations are overrepresented in teachingand sales sector; these sectors offer low income than in the job sectors wheremen dominate. Furthermore, women are often recruited as assistants inadministrations, shops, or as low skilled and unskilled workers (Eagly, A.

H.& Carli, L.L., 2010).

This accounts for a large percentage of women who aredoing the job yet those occupations that offer little income for instancecleaning.The existenceof tradition and stereotype also contributes to gender pay gap. The educationpaths and profession choices that women make can be influenced by tradition andstereotypes (Bertrand, M., & et.al, 2010). The female graduates in atechnical field are minority resulting in few female scientists andtechnicians.Women aredirectly discriminated in pay and this discrimination contributes a lot toexpand the variations in payments between males and females (Okpara, J.

O,2012). In some instances, some women are paid much less than men having done asimilar job. The issue ofgender pay gap has effects which go past working life in that it also affects aperson’s lifetime and results in women having fewer finances for saving andinvestment. The gender pay gap also shows that women have a lesser pension thanthat which men get by a great percentage. This is as a result of the existenceof gender pension gap.   ReferencesAcker, J., 2012. Inequality regimes: Gender,class, and race in organizations.

 Gender & society, 20(4),pp.441-464.Agapiou, A., 2012. Perceptions of gender rolesand attitudes toward work among male and female operatives in the Constructionorganisations. Construction Management , 20(8),pp.697-705.

 Alksnis, C., Desmarais, S. and Curtis, J.,2011. Workforce segregation and the gender wage gap: Is “women’s” work valuedas highly as “men’s”?.

 Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38(6),pp.1416-1441.Bertrand, M., Goldin, C. and Katz, L.F., 2010.

Dynamics of the gender gap for young professionals in the financial andcorporate sectors. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2(3),pp.228-255.  Blau, F.D. and Kahn, L.M., 2012.

Thegender pay gap have women gone as far as they can? The Academy ofManagement Perspectives, 21(1), pp.7-23.Cohen, P.N. and Huffman, M.

L., 2011. Working forthe woman? Female managers and the gender wage gap. AmericanSociological Review, 72(5), pp.

681-704.ec.europa.ec/justice/gender-equality/gender-pay-gap/causes/index_en.htmEagly, A.

H. and Carli, L.L., 2010.

Women and thelabyrinth of leadership. Harvard business review, 85(9),p.62.England, P., 2010. The gender revolution: Unevenand stalled. Gender & society, 24(2), pp.

149-166.Mandel, H. and Shalev, M., 2010. How welfarestates shape the gender pay gap: a theoretical and comparative analysis.

 SocialForces, 87(4), pp.1873-1911.Okpara, J.O.

, 2012. Gender and the relationshipbetween perceived fairness in pay, promotion, and job satisfaction in asub-Saharan African economy. Women in Management Review, 21(3),pp.224-240.