THEORETICAL Public Hospitals” which was written by Andreea Cipria


This study is anchored on the Expectancy Disconfirmation Theory which explains the process of consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction (CS/ D). It was hypothesized that CS/D with a destination can be explained by the difference between tourists’ perceived outcome of a trip and their specific expectations before it took place(disconfirmation) The Expectancy Disconfirmation Theory was developed by Richard L. Oliver which gives the idea that satisfaction is related to the size and direction of disconfirmation experience that occurs as a result of comparing service performance against expectations, which means that when a customer expectations are too high but the real service performance is too far from his expectations then satisfaction is low, when service equates expectation then satisfaction is relatively high but when service exceeds expectation it can neither satisfy or dissatisfy a customer.(Venkatesh et al.,2010)

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 Another theory which supports Consumer Satisfaction is Contrast Theory theorized by Hovland, Harvey, and Sherif(1987) and Dawes et al (1972) which says that any discrepancy of experience from expectations will be exaggerated in the direction of the discrepancy. Conversely over delivering will cause positive disconfirmation also to be exaggerated.(Liu et al.,2012)


The study Value Percept Disparity :An Alternative to the Disconfirmation of Expectation Theory of Consumer Satisfaction written by Robert Westbrook and Michael Reilly which mentions the Value Percept Disparity which asserts that satisfaction /dissatisfaction is an emotional response triggered by a cognitive evaluative process in which the perceptions of an object, action or condition are compared to one’s values. (Bloemer et al.,2007)



Related Studies:

The study entitled “Consumer Satisfaction Measurements in Public Hospitals” which was written by Andreea Cipria Muntean and Alina Putan strives to identify the satisfaction of consumers on healthcare services in Alba County respectively patients, to further improve the process of healthcare services in the county that’s why they ask for the patient’s comments and feedback. (Putan et al.,2015)


Another study is the “Value Factors Determining Consumer Satisfaction at Full-scale Restaurants in Saudi Arabia written by Muhammad Asad Sadi and Taha Saricimen says that as the industry of food business in the Kingdom grows more and more the customers are also now expecting high value of products in relation to price so the operators are becoming more innovative each day to remain successful and to continue existing in the market.(Taha et al.,2010)


The study ” Measures of Consumer Satisfaction in Social Welfare and Behavioral Health: A Systematic Review authored by Mark Fraser and Shiyou Wu which reviews the origins, conceptual bases, psychometric properties, and limitations of consumer satisfaction measures in social welfare and behavioral health. 


Another study with relation is “Consumer Satisfaction:Advancements in Theory, Modeling and Empirical Findings “written by Alessandro Peluso; which presents  the state-of-the-art in consumer satisfaction research and reports an empirical application of a new model, the Knowledge-Hope Model by Guido (2010), which promises to make a substantial contribution to the field. The application has been structured in two connected studies, following a procedure that is easily implementable by researchers, managers, and practitioners.(Peluso,2011)





Lastly, another related study is the “Consumer Satisfaction towards Cosmetic Products at Nagapattinam District written by Muthukumaran, A. aims to identify the level of consumer satisfaction of those people who purchase cosmetic products at the said district. Consumer Satisfaction again is the ultimate goal of every business for them to continue existing in the market.(Muthukumaran,2016)


 Nevertheless, it is imperative and obligatory that an enterprise must give the best of its abilities to ensure that the customers are happy and satisfied with the service and product that they received from them.