The Canadian history is full of tragedies, villains, heroes, great battles, and long struggles for justices. The Canadian constitution has evolved from the colonial times to the present days.
In this paper, I will highlight the constitutional events in Canada that were historic. 1867: Confederation. The creation of many countries was through the revolution but, Canada’s formation was through a series of negotiations and conferences hence the term Confederation.
The Canadian province and the British North America colonies took part in the nation building. 1979: Election of Joe Clark The conservatives under the leadership of Joe Clark won the federal elections in May. He defeated Pierre Trudeau although he didn’t win the majority in the Canadian House of Commons and therefore, he formed the minority, and his rule was short-lived. In December the same year, his government fell on budget vote leading to the 1980 election. Both the Liberals and the New Democratic Party vote led to the fall of the budget. On the following polls, Trudeau won resuming to power with the majority government. His term was the shortest as it was of 273 days.1982: Rights and Freedoms Charter.
During this year in April, the Prime Minister Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau witnessed the Queen sign Canada’s Constitution and the Charter of Rights and Freedom. The bill and the human rights were necessary as it ensured equality and civil rights of the Canadians. The bill of human rights constitutes the first act of the constitution. Specifically, the statute highlights the fundamental freedoms and the rights of democratic, legal, mobility and equality rights (“Constitution Acts, 1867 to 1982,” 2015). 1983: Abortion Law DebateA former politician of Manitoba; Joe Borowski filed a petition against the court to declare the 1969 amendment of the criminal law invalid. In the year 1969, Pierre Trudeau’s the then Prime Minister of Liberal Government recognised the use of contraceptives and abortion under certain conditions. According to him, abortion could be permitted only in hospitals if doctors agreed that the life of the mother is in danger. Joe, in this case, argued that abortion is unlawful because it was against the rights and freedom stipulated in Canadian charter where even the fetus has a right to life.
1999: Creation of a New Territory During this year, in the far north of Canada, a territory was created. The territory was the third after Yukon and the Northwest Territories, and it was called Nunavut which means ‘our land’. The largest occupants of the land are Inuit. The formation of this territory gave the Inuit rights to minerals and cash settlement. However, the formation of the territory didn’t begin in 1999, but the deal was signed in 1992 and approved by parliament in 1993. Apart from having a new territory, Canada’s map changed for the first time (“History, Apr 01, 1999, Canada’s newest territory,” 2016). 2000: Clarity Bill outlines the terms of Québec SeparationThe act was passed by the parliament after the Canadian Supreme Court laid down some guideline in governances and provincial succession. The act stipulated that the succession of a province can only occur through a constitutional amendment.
2003-2005: Same-sex Marriage Progressively, same-sex marriage was introduced in some states before it was legally recognised worldwide. The legalisation happened with the enactment of the marriage act. Ontario was the first state to legalise same sex-marriage (“TIMELINE | Same-sex rights in Canada,” 2015). The province announced that it would obey the law and register same-sex marriages. British Columbia became the second, and in August 2003 an emotional debate was held where a church-endorsed same-sex marriage. With many other events that happened in Canada, these constitutional events embarked considerable changes in the country as some of them even changed the map of the country.