THEUNDERSTANDING OF ENGLISH AS LINGUA FRANCAANDITS INVOLVEMENT IN LANGUAGE EDUCATIONPOLICIESIN EUROPEQatip Arifi*1 Abstract: Thismaterial addresses a topic that has long been relevant in scientific circles.It is about the meaning or understanding of the use of English as Lingua Franca(ELF) and its role in the formation of language education policies in Europe,which in fact is creation of a multi-lingual individualism and a multilingualenvironment characterized by tolerance and respect for the different. The firstpart deals with the spread of English at a global level as a result ofglobalization, the development of information technologies and the need forlifelong learning and advancement. This concept speaks of Europe’s educationallanguage policies, where English domination is present. The purpose of the workis to present, based on a survey of relevant resources, the understanding of Englishas Lingua Franca in the formation of language education policies in Europe.Some authors believe that ELF’s knowledge enables the largest movement ofEuropean citizens and participation in all public spheres, and that ELF canserve to promote other languages ??and cultures.
However, in the Council ofEurope it is thought that there is a lot of linguistic dominance. Englishlanguage can jeopardize the desire of European language policies to create amultilingual society, where all languages ??are equally and equally valid.Keywords: English language as LinguaFranca (ELF), educational languagepolicy, diversity.1.
Introduction Thedesire for progress, knowledge exchange, familiarity with different peoples andcultures, going abroad for further education or work impose a need to know atleast one foreign language. The need to find a global means of communicationfor the further improvement or achievement of a goal, the English LanguageConcept as Lingua Franca and its role inthe formation of educational language libraries in Europe, as well as theemergence of the Internet, which connected people from different parts of theworld, has led to the for the first time in history, a single language – English- has emerged as a global Lingua Franca , used by people across the globe tocommunicate and make some progress on a personal or global scale. The enormousdistribution of English, or an increasing number of its speakers, influencesthe creation of language policies in Europe, where English dominates as thesecond and foreign languages. The era of globalization is characterized by,among other things, the rise of English language, therefore “the beginningof the third millennium will remain recorded as the beginning of thelinguistic, perhaps also cultural, imperialism of the English language, whichis unstoppably spreading through the whole world and entering into all spheres,as well as the living space of each individual inhabitants of our planet “.Such linguistic imperialism carries with it different questions and problemsthat need to be solved within the framework of education policy. There is aneed for change in the field of organization and teaching, both English andnon-native, as well as other foreign languages.2. TheEnglish language as the Lingua Franca Theauthor2 explainsthe term Lingua Franca (Lingua Franca )- originated from the Arabic lisan-al-farang and means the language mediatorwho used Arabic speakers in communicating with travelers from Western Europe,and later its meaning has expanded and marked the language of trade.
English asthe Lingua Franca (ELF) can be definedas “a language used as a means of communication among members of differentlinguistic groups whose language is not first language. It draws attention tothe fact that for the first time in history one language is used globally, andits structure and content are equally affected by the original speakers andthose to whom it’s a page or another language. Famous linguist David Crystal inmany of his articles deals with this phenomenon, or with English as a planetarylanguage, and how speakers of this language influence its changing. He,3 criticizes the use of the “trojanhorse” metaphor, which some authors use, which refers to the spread ofEnglish and the imposition of its culture around the world.
Crystal states thatthree-quarters of English vocabulary are borrowed and have entered English forover a thousand years from a hundred of twenty different languages. If youadhere to the mentioned metaphor, then there is a large number (one hundred andtwenty) “trojan horses” within English. Also, this author explainsthat the link between culture and language is complex, emphasizing that we mustalways be cautious about the potential dangers of “linguisticimperialism,” but that it does not need to be exaggerated. He disagreeswith the claims of certain authors that along with the teaching of English,they always impose anglo-saxson cultural and social values. Englishcan also serve as an intermediary in learning other cultures, developingtolerance and creating awareness of cultural diversity. Crystal4 inhis article “The Future of Englishas a World Language” makes a parallel between English and Latin,emphasizing the similarities and differences of these two languages ??whosedomination occurs in different periods.
The proliferation of the Latin languageresulted in fragmentation, the creation of new languages ??that still live onaccount of its disappearance. When the language spreads, culture, flora andfauna change which different parts of the world are different, so the need forexpanding vocabulary of the English language is imposed, new speakers modify itand adapt it to their environment and their needs. Brumfit 5says that the enormous distribution of English has led to the fact that it doesnot belong only to speakers who are native speakers or the first language.
“The language is actually owned by all those who use it, and this implied thepower to adjust and change language”.6However, although the elements of fragmentation are recognized in the expansionof English, Crystal suspects that it will experience the same fate as Latin,that is, in the future, English language family will be created at the expenseof standard English. He explains that in the Middle Ages it was easy to beisolated from the rest of the world, and today, with the existence of theInternet, it is almost impossible and that this connection of people enablesthe maintenance of English as a global language. Crystal 7states in his papers that, in addition to allowing the Internet to maintainEnglish as a Lingua Franca , it also enables multilingualism. Through examplesof the Japanese, South African, American and British English, this authorillustrates the assertion is not the only the linguistic dimension issufficient, but it is also necessary to know the different cultures ofspeakers. He points out that internet display and information technologydevelopment have made it possible for all the languages of the world to quicklyand easily find their place online and use it for promotion and expansion. Also,Crystal adds the third – electronic medium – to two that exist for centuries -spoken and written language. Promoting minority languages ??and culturesthrough the Internet is easy and accessible wherever there is electricity,computers and the Internet; and the benefits offered by the internet could beused to strengthen languages ??with fewer speakers in relation to the dominantlanguages, primarily English.
This author 8,speaking about vulnerable languages ??and what is needed to revitalize thelanguage, points out that the biggest problem is the underdeveloped publicawareness that some languages ??are threatened with extinction and that it isnecessary to take certain steps to prevent this from happening. He offers amodel of solving this problem by describing four ways for the public to getacquainted with this problem – through media,art, Internet and school curriculum.This last paragraph indicates that educational language policies can greatlycontribute to the beginning of solving this problem.
It is also stressed thatbesides developing awareness, enthusiasm is necessary in order to solve theproblem.3. Therole of English in the formation of educational language policies in Europe Educationallanguage policies and planning deal with selecting languages ??that will beused as education languages, or additional / foreign / other languages ??in agiven education system. When it comes to Europe, the author Breidbach 9deals with the issue of English in Europe, where plurilinguism is set as theprinciple and goal of educational language policies. It should enable each individualto become plurilingual for the social and political inclusion and the formationof European identity, and thereby to preserve and promote cultural diversity.He confirms that the Guide for the Developmentof Educational Language Policies in Europe emphasize that “educationallanguage policy should promote learning several languages ??during the life soevery European to become a citizen characterized by plurilingualism andnon-culturality, capable of interacting in all spheres of life”.10The right that every individual uses, learn and cultivate its language /languages ??is considered to be a “cultural law” as an apprenticeshipof human rights because “learning a language also implies learning about aculture, another way to categorize and qualify the world, expressing andbuilding an individual’s thoughts and emotions”.
11 Bridbachconsiders that the Council of Europe is aware that through the teaching of aforeign language, where English is dominant as a foreign language, it isdifficult to promote linguistic diversity. Scientists warn that it is notenough to strive for multilingualism, but it requires political will andeconomic power to break down prejudices about the sufficiency of the absolutevalue of English as a foreign language. However, some authors consider thatlimiting the learning of English as a foreign language may have more damagethan good, because “the competent use of English ensures the dominance ofthe speakers in any type of communication between speakers of Europeancountries”.12Knowledge of English today is comparable to the art of reading and writing inthe era of industrialization. English as a Lingua Franca is considered part of general education, andsome doubt that many global problems could be solved without the knowledge ofEnglish House,13exploring English and its role as Lingua Franca in Europe, points out that itdoes not pose a threat to L1 and multilingualism, as it is necessary todistinguish between the languages ??of communication (such as today, forexample, ELF) and the language of identification (for example, mother tongue).In his paper he mentions a new trend of today – the introduction of ELF as alanguage of instruction at faculties. As a model, he presents the ELF model inhigher education in Germany, and such new introduction is explained by theauthor as an attempt by German universities to gain an international epithemeand attract as many foreign students as possible, and therefore an infusion offinancial resources as studies are paid. It turned out that this practice inGermany did not jeopardize the national language of that country, but the ELFserved as a mediator in the spread of German language and culture.
Namely,according to their educational policy, ELF is used only at the beginning andserves as helping language until foreign students do not master German.According to this author, ELF is the only hybrid language; she reminds us thatFishman14twenty-five years ago named the ELF as an “extra language” that worksin conjunction with local languages, not as opposed to them. House believes thatif we look at ELF in this way, there is no fear that it will endanger ourmother tongue, but it can mediate in its promotion and expansion.
Neuner15also deals with the concept of English as a planetary language (Lingua Franca )and its role in various educational policies, relying on the Guide to theDevelopment of Language Education Policies in Europe. He states three aspectsthat have contributed to popularity and motivation for learning English aroundthe world: market value (it is worthstudying it), simple grammaticalstructures that learn with ease (at least in the beginning) and status given by people. It is inrelation to wealth and progress. However, Neuner draws attention to someimportant aspects of learning a foreign language, stressing out that a man by learninga foreign language extends aspects and experiences, both about the outsideworld and about his inner world; contributes to the formation of attitudesabout other people and their culture, which leads to openness and tolerance orprejudice and aversion.
He states that Europe’s educational language policiesare based on maintaining and promoting diversity. Thebasic characteristic of Europe as a whole, as well as individual Member Statesof the European Council, is that they are multicultural and multilingual. Thetriple objective of European language policy, when it comes to learning foreignlanguages, means: a pragmatic goal(learning foreign languages ??for easier mobility of citizens and sharingideas), intercultural goal (overcomingprejudices and developing tolerance among European citizens) and the socio-political goal (providingprotection and support for rich linguistic and cultural heritage for the mutualenrichment). Based on this, the author makes several conclusions regarding theprinciples of foreign language learning within European language policy: theteaching of a foreign language needs to develop an interest in other to developopenness and tolerance towards different, in addition to pragmatic skills;learning more foreign languages ??should be set as a central element of formaleducation; every Europeans should be given the chance to learn more than oneforeign language during schooling; to offer different languages ??(spoken inand out of Europe); goals, motivation, the intensity, methods and contexts oflearning different languages ??can vary, so accordingly, the achievements indifferent languages ??are also different.
This author then points out thatEnglish vis-à-vis other languages ??has a dual role in the European context.There is an obvious need for one language that can be used in everydaycommunication of Europeans, and English as Lingua Franca fulfills this function. English also takesfirst place as a foreign language in curricula throughout Europe, except incountries where it is native.
This author says that the dominance of Englishcould jeopardize the concept of a European language policy that is based onlinguistic diversity and proposes two ways to solve this problem. If it comesto the fact that there is a strong motivation for learning the English languageand that it is learned with ease, then within the school curriculum it isnecessary to limit the time of learning the English language and reserve it forlearning other foreign languages. Englishas the first foreign language should be used as a basis for learning otherforeign languages ??on the basis of similarity. He also states that whilelearning a foreign language, besides linguistic elements, you will also learnhow to learn a foreign language, which can be applied to the learning of eachsubsequent foreign language, and for easier and faster overcoming.4. Conclusion Globalization,the development of information technologies and the need for lifelong educationhave contributed to the importance of language competence as a key professionalqualification. Although the languages ??of Europe’s educational policies tendsto create a multilingual society characterized by tolerance and respect for adifferent, the choice of another or foreign language is often under theinfluence of a wider sociopolitical context and, generally, within formaleducation, languages ??are dominant on the basis of political and economicpower as compulsory subjects. The author House16states that ELF, due to its enormous communicative value, gained a specialstatus in the EU and distinguished itself from other European languages.
Knowing the ELF enables both the inhabitants of the world and the inhabitantsof Europe greater mobility and knowledge of different cultures and languages. TheGuide of the Development of Educational Language Policies in Europe requiresthat Europe’s educational language policies should give every citizen theopportunity to learn more languages, nurturing mother tongue and culture,respecting the cultures of other Europeans and serving another Europeanlanguage, primarily English, for better integration and participation in publicspheres in a multilingual environment such as Europe. House points out thatlanguage education policies should be open and flexible and should recognizethe best ways how to set the goals successfully in practice, relying on modelsthat have yielded good results. Germany is a good example of how to attractforeign students to study and get acquainted with a different culture andlanguage, serving ELF as the language of instruction in the initial stage ofstudy. Inaddition to this, you should be careful about the potential dangers oflinguistic imperialism, many researchers find no reason to fear for the use of ELF at the planetary level,because minority languages ??can take advantage of the knowledge of the ELF fortheir own promotion and expansion. However, although the dominance of Englishin the world does not always mean the breakdown of the Anglo-Saxon culturalmodel, shown by various English-language varieties around the world (WorldEnglishes), whose speakers influence its change, and examples are given ofEnglish language adaptation to different cultures.
The Council of Europe andsome researchers are aware that such domination can endanger the development ofmultilingualism. They emphasize the need for enthusiasm as well as politicalwill and financial resources to bring learning of different foreign languages??into action and to overcome preconceptions about learning English as aforeign language, where it is perceived as sufficient and more valuable thanlanguage a smaller number of speakers. Literature – Audigier, Frank.Basic Concepts and core competencies foreducation for democratic citizenship. DGIV/EDU/CIT. 2000 23. Document CDCC /Delphes (99) 4.
– Breidbach,Stephan. Plurilingualism, democraticcitizenship in Europe and the role of English 2003 (1-24). Conference onLanguages, diversity, citizenship: policies for plurilingualism in Europe,Strasbourg, 13-15 November, 2002. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
– Brumfit,Christopher. (Ed.) English forInternational Communication. Oxford: Pergamon, 1998 – Carmichael,Cathie.
Conclusions: Language andNational Identity in Europe.2000. – Barbour,S. & Carmichael, C. (Eds.) Languageand Nationalism in Europe, 2000. (280-289). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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www.coe.int/lang (Language Policies). – Crystal, David.. Language:medium, barrier, or Trojan horse? (Contribution to: Cultural Diplomacy at theCrossroads: Cultural Relations in Europeand the Wider World, Wilton House, 26 November, 1997). Retrieved December12, 2014. from: http://www.
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2003. Journal of sociolinguistics. 7 (4), 556-578. – Neuner,Gerhard, G. Policy approaches to English.Strasbourg: 2002. Language Policy Division.
· Qatip Arifi,Department of English Language, Faculty of English Language, AAB College, e-mail: [email protected] 2 House,Julian, English as a lingua franca: A threat to multilingualism 2003,2003. Journal of sociolinguistics.
7(4), (557)3 DavidCrystal, English as a Global Language, Second edition,2003. CambridgeUniversity Press, New York4 DavidCrystal, Language Death, CambridgeUniversity Press, 20025 ChistopherBumfrit, English for InternationalCommunication, Oxford: New YorkPergamon, First ed. C 20016 BarbaraSeidlhofer, Understanding English asLingua Franca, Oxford University Press 2011,7 DavidCrystal, Crossing the Great Divide:Language Endangerment and Public Awareness, Keynote Speech to theInternational Expert Meeting on Endangered Languages, UNESCO, Paris, 10 March,2003) 8 Crystal,David, Crossing the Great Divide:Language Endangerment and Public Awareness.
Keynote Speech to theInternational Expert Meeting on Endangered Languages, UNESCO, Paris, 10 March,2003)9 Breidbach,Stephan. (2003). Plurilingualism,democratic citizenship in Europe and the role of English Language PolicyDivision, DG IV – Directorate of School, Out-of-School and HigherEducation, Council of Europe, Strasbourg10 Conference on Languages, diversity,citizenship: policies for plurilingualism in Europe, Strasbourg, 13-15,November, 2002. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.11 FrançoisAudigier, Basic Concepts and corecompetencies for education for democratic citizenship, Council of Europe,Strasbourg 26 June 200012 CathieCarmichael, Conclusions: Language andNational Identity in Europe.. 2000. In: Barbour, S.
& Carmichael, C.(Eds.) Language and Nationalism in Europe(280-289). Oxford: Oxford University Press13 JulianHouse, English as a lingua franca: Athreat to multilingualism, 2003. Journal of sociolinguistics. 7 (4),556-57814 JoshuaA Fishman, English in the context ofinternational societal bilingualism, 1997, The Spread of English(329-336).
Rowley, Massachusette:Newsbury House.15 GerhardNeuner, Policy approaches to English.Language Policy Division, Council of Europe, Strasbourg: 2002.16 JulianHouse, English as a lingua franca: A threatto multilingualism, 2003.
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