THE the Council of Europe it is thought that

THE
UNDERSTANDING OF ENGLISH AS LINGUA FRANCAAND
ITS INVOLVEMENT IN LANGUAGE EDUCATIONPOLICIES
IN EUROPEQatip Arifi*1 Abstract:
            This
material addresses a topic that has long been relevant in scientific circles.
It is about the meaning or understanding of the use of English as Lingua Franca
(ELF) and its role in the formation of language education policies in Europe,
which in fact is creation of a multi-lingual individualism and a multilingual
environment characterized by tolerance and respect for the different. The first
part deals with the spread of English at a global level as a result of
globalization, the development of information technologies and the need for
lifelong learning and advancement. This concept speaks of Europe’s educational
language policies, where English domination is present. The purpose of the work
is to present, based on a survey of relevant resources, the understanding of English
as Lingua Franca in the formation of language education policies in Europe.
Some authors believe that ELF’s knowledge enables the largest movement of
European citizens and participation in all public spheres, and that ELF can
serve to promote other languages ??and cultures. However, in the Council of
Europe it is thought that there is a lot of linguistic dominance. English
language can jeopardize the desire of European language policies to create a
multilingual society, where all languages ??are equally and equally valid.Key
words: English language as Lingua
Franca  (ELF), educational language
policy, diversity.1.     
Introduction            The
desire for progress, knowledge exchange, familiarity with different peoples and
cultures, going abroad for further education or work impose a need to know at
least one foreign language. The need to find a global means of communication
for the further improvement or achievement of a goal, the English Language
Concept as Lingua Franca  and its role in
the formation of educational language libraries in Europe, as well as the
emergence of the Internet, which connected people from different parts of the
world, has led to the for the first time in history, a single language – English
– has emerged as a global Lingua Franca , used by people across the globe to
communicate and make some progress on a personal or global scale. The enormous
distribution of English, or an increasing number of its speakers, influences
the creation of language policies in Europe, where English dominates as the
second and foreign languages. The era of globalization is characterized by,
among other things, the rise of English language, therefore “the beginning
of the third millennium will remain recorded as the beginning of the
linguistic, perhaps also cultural, imperialism of the English language, which
is unstoppably spreading through the whole world and entering into all spheres,
as well as the living space of each individual inhabitants of our planet “.
Such linguistic imperialism carries with it different questions and problems
that need to be solved within the framework of education policy. There is a
need for change in the field of organization and teaching, both English and
non-native, as well as other foreign languages.2.     
The
English language as the Lingua Franca              The
author2 explains
the term Lingua Franca  (Lingua Franca )
– originated from the Arabic lisan-al-farang and means the language mediator
who used Arabic speakers in communicating with travelers from Western Europe,
and later its meaning has expanded and marked the language of trade. English as
the Lingua Franca  (ELF) can be defined
as “a language used as a means of communication among members of different
linguistic groups whose language is not first language. It draws attention to
the fact that for the first time in history one language is used globally, and
its structure and content are equally affected by the original speakers and
those to whom it’s a page or another language. Famous linguist David Crystal in
many of his articles deals with this phenomenon, or with English as a planetary
language, and how speakers of this language influence its changing. He,3  criticizes the use of the “trojan
horse” metaphor, which some authors use, which refers to the spread of
English and the imposition of its culture around the world. Crystal states that
three-quarters of English vocabulary are borrowed and have entered English for
over a thousand years from a hundred of twenty different languages. If you
adhere to the mentioned metaphor, then there is a large number (one hundred and
twenty) “trojan horses” within English. Also, this author explains
that the link between culture and language is complex, emphasizing that we must
always be cautious about the potential dangers of “linguistic
imperialism,” but that it does not need to be exaggerated. He disagrees
with the claims of certain authors that along with the teaching of English,
they always impose anglo-saxson cultural and social values.             English
can also serve as an intermediary in learning other cultures, developing
tolerance and creating awareness of cultural diversity. Crystal4 in
his article “The Future of English
as a World Language” makes a parallel between English and Latin,
emphasizing the similarities and differences of these two languages ??whose
domination occurs in different periods. The proliferation of the Latin language
resulted in fragmentation, the creation of new languages ??that still live on
account of its disappearance. When the language spreads, culture, flora and
fauna change which different parts of the world are different, so the need for
expanding vocabulary of the English language is imposed, new speakers modify it
and adapt it to their environment and their needs. Brumfit 5
says that the enormous distribution of English has led to the fact that it does
not belong only to speakers who are native speakers or the first language.
“The language is actually owned by all those who use it, and this implied the
power to adjust and change language”.6
However, although the elements of fragmentation are recognized in the expansion
of English, Crystal suspects that it will experience the same fate as Latin,
that is, in the future, English language family will be created at the expense
of standard English. He explains that in the Middle Ages it was easy to be
isolated from the rest of the world, and today, with the existence of the
Internet, it is almost impossible and that this connection of people enables
the maintenance of English as a global language. Crystal 7
states in his papers that, in addition to allowing the Internet to maintain
English as a Lingua Franca , it also enables multilingualism. Through examples
of the Japanese, South African, American and British English, this author
illustrates the assertion is not the only the linguistic dimension is
sufficient, but it is also necessary to know the different cultures of
speakers. He points out that internet display and information technology
development have made it possible for all the languages of the world to quickly
and easily find their place online and use it for promotion and expansion. Also,
Crystal adds the third – electronic medium – to two that exist for centuries –
spoken and written language. Promoting minority languages ??and cultures
through the Internet is easy and accessible wherever there is electricity,
computers and the Internet; and the benefits offered by the internet could be
used to strengthen languages ??with fewer speakers in relation to the dominant
languages, primarily English. This author 8,
speaking about vulnerable languages ??and what is needed to revitalize the
language, points out that the biggest problem is the underdeveloped public
awareness that some languages ??are threatened with extinction and that it is
necessary to take certain steps to prevent this from happening. He offers a
model of solving this problem by describing four ways for the public to get
acquainted with this problem – through media,
art, Internet and school curriculum.
This last paragraph indicates that educational language policies can greatly
contribute to the beginning of solving this problem. It is also stressed that
besides developing awareness, enthusiasm is necessary in order to solve the
problem.3.     
The
role of English in the formation of educational language policies in Europe            Educational
language policies and planning deal with selecting languages ??that will be
used as education languages, or additional / foreign / other languages ??in a
given education system. When it comes to Europe, the author Breidbach 9
deals with the issue of English in Europe, where plurilinguism is set as the
principle and goal of educational language policies. It should enable each individual
to become plurilingual for the social and political inclusion and the formation
of European identity, and thereby to preserve and promote cultural diversity.
He confirms that the Guide for  the Development
of Educational Language Policies in Europe emphasize that “educational
language policy should promote learning several languages ??during the life so
every European to become a citizen characterized by plurilingualism and
non-culturality, capable of interacting in all spheres of life”.10
The right that every individual uses, learn and cultivate its language /
languages ??is considered to be a “cultural law” as an apprenticeship
of human rights because “learning a language also implies learning about a
culture, another way to categorize and qualify the world, expressing and
building an individual’s thoughts and emotions”. 11             Bridbach
considers that the Council of Europe is aware that through the teaching of a
foreign language, where English is dominant as a foreign language, it is
difficult to promote linguistic diversity. Scientists warn that it is not
enough to strive for multilingualism, but it requires political will and
economic power to break down prejudices about the sufficiency of the absolute
value of English as a foreign language. However, some authors consider that
limiting the learning of English as a foreign language may have more damage
than good, because “the competent use of English ensures the dominance of
the speakers in any type of communication between speakers of European
countries”.12
Knowledge of English today is comparable to the art of reading and writing in
the era of industrialization. English as a Lingua Franca  is considered part of general education, and
some doubt that many global problems could be solved without the knowledge of
English            House,13
exploring English and its role as Lingua Franca in Europe, points out that it
does not pose a threat to L1 and multilingualism, as it is necessary to
distinguish between the languages ??of communication (such as today, for
example, ELF) and the language of identification (for example, mother tongue).
In his paper he mentions a new trend of today – the introduction of ELF as a
language of instruction at faculties. As a model, he presents the ELF model in
higher education in Germany, and such new introduction is explained by the
author as an attempt by German universities to gain an international epitheme
and attract as many foreign students as possible, and therefore an infusion of
financial resources as studies are paid. It turned out that this practice in
Germany did not jeopardize the national language of that country, but the ELF
served as a mediator in the spread of German language and culture. Namely,
according to their educational policy, ELF is used only at the beginning and
serves as helping language until foreign students do not master German.
According to this author, ELF is the only hybrid language; she reminds us that
Fishman14
twenty-five years ago named the ELF as an “extra language” that works
in conjunction with local languages, not as opposed to them. House believes that
if we look at ELF in this way, there is no fear that it will endanger our
mother tongue, but it can mediate in its promotion and expansion.             Neuner15
also deals with the concept of English as a planetary language (Lingua Franca )
and its role in various educational policies, relying on the Guide to the
Development of Language Education Policies in Europe. He states three aspects
that have contributed to popularity and motivation for learning English around
the world: market value (it is worth
studying it), simple grammatical
structures that learn with ease (at least in the beginning) and status given by people. It is in
relation to wealth and progress. However, Neuner draws attention to some
important aspects of learning a foreign language, stressing out that a man by learning
a foreign language extends aspects and experiences, both about the outside
world and about his inner world; contributes to the formation of attitudes
about other people and their culture, which leads to openness and tolerance or
prejudice and aversion. He states that Europe’s educational language policies
are based on maintaining and promoting diversity.             The
basic characteristic of Europe as a whole, as well as individual Member States
of the European Council, is that they are multicultural and multilingual. The
triple objective of European language policy, when it comes to learning foreign
languages, means: a pragmatic goal
(learning foreign languages ??for easier mobility of citizens and sharing
ideas), intercultural goal (overcoming
prejudices and developing tolerance among European citizens) and the socio-political goal (providing
protection and support for rich linguistic and cultural heritage for the mutual
enrichment). Based on this, the author makes several conclusions regarding the
principles of foreign language learning within European language policy: the
teaching of a foreign language needs to develop an interest in other to develop
openness and tolerance towards different, in addition to pragmatic skills;
learning more foreign languages ??should be set as a central element of formal
education; every Europeans should be given the chance to learn more than one
foreign language during schooling; to offer different languages ??(spoken in
and out of Europe); goals, motivation, the intensity, methods and contexts of
learning different languages ??can vary, so accordingly, the achievements in
different languages ??are also different. This author then points out that
English vis-à-vis other languages ??has a dual role in the European context.
There is an obvious need for one language that can be used in everyday
communication of Europeans, and English as Lingua Franca  fulfills this function. English also takes
first place as a foreign language in curricula throughout Europe, except in
countries where it is native. This author says that the dominance of English
could jeopardize the concept of a European language policy that is based on
linguistic diversity and proposes two ways to solve this problem. If it comes
to the fact that there is a strong motivation for learning the English language
and that it is learned with ease, then within the school curriculum it is
necessary to limit the time of learning the English language and reserve it for
learning other foreign languages.            English
as the first foreign language should be used as a basis for learning other
foreign languages ??on the basis of similarity. He also states that while
learning a foreign language, besides linguistic elements, you will also learn
how to learn a foreign language, which can be applied to the learning of each
subsequent foreign language, and for easier and faster overcoming.4.     
Conclusion            Globalization,
the development of information technologies and the need for lifelong education
have contributed to the importance of language competence as a key professional
qualification. Although the languages ??of Europe’s educational policies tends
to create a multilingual society characterized by tolerance and respect for a
different, the choice of another or foreign language is often under the
influence of a wider sociopolitical context and, generally, within formal
education, languages ??are dominant on the basis of political and economic
power as compulsory subjects. The author House16
states that ELF, due to its enormous communicative value, gained a special
status in the EU and distinguished itself from other European languages.
Knowing the ELF enables both the inhabitants of the world and the inhabitants
of Europe greater mobility and knowledge of different cultures and languages.            The
Guide of the Development of Educational Language Policies in Europe requires
that Europe’s educational language policies should give every citizen the
opportunity to learn more languages, nurturing mother tongue and culture,
respecting the cultures of other Europeans and serving another European
language, primarily English, for better integration and participation in public
spheres in a multilingual environment such as Europe. House points out that
language education policies should be open and flexible and should recognize
the best ways how to set the goals successfully in practice, relying on models
that have yielded good results. Germany is a good example of how to attract
foreign students to study and get acquainted with a different culture and
language, serving ELF as the language of instruction in the initial stage of
study.            In
addition to this, you should be careful about the potential dangers of
linguistic imperialism, many researchers 
find no reason to fear for the use of ELF at the planetary level,
because minority languages ??can take advantage of the knowledge of the ELF for
their own promotion and expansion. However, although the dominance of English
in the world does not always mean the breakdown of the Anglo-Saxon cultural
model, shown by various English-language varieties around the world (World
Englishes), whose speakers influence its change, and examples are given of
English language adaptation to different cultures. The Council of Europe and
some researchers are aware that such domination can endanger the development of
multilingualism. They emphasize the need for enthusiasm as well as political
will and financial resources to bring learning of different foreign languages
??into action and to overcome preconceptions about learning English as a
foreign language, where it is perceived as sufficient and more valuable than
language a smaller number of speakers. 

 Literature –         
 Audigier, Frank.
Basic Concepts and core competencies for
education for democratic citizenship. DGIV/EDU/CIT. 2000 23. Document CDCC /Delphes (99) 4. Online
http://www.coe.int (Education).  –         
Breidbach,
Stephan. Plurilingualism, democratic
citizenship in Europe and the role of English 2003 (1-24). Conference on
Languages, diversity, citizenship: policies for plurilingualism in Europe,
Strasbourg, 13-15 November, 2002. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. –         
Brumfit,
Christopher. (Ed.) English for
International Communication. Oxford: Pergamon, 1998 –         
Carmichael,
Cathie. Conclusions: Language and
National Identity in Europe.2000. –         
Barbour,
S. & Carmichael, C. (Eds.) Language
and Nationalism in Europe, 2000. (280-289). Oxford: Oxford University Press.  –         
Council
of Europe. Guide for the Development of
Language Education Policies in Europe:2003. From Linguistic Diversity to Plurilingual Education.
Executive version. www.coe.int/lang (Language Policies).  –         
Crystal, David.. Language:
medium, barrier, or Trojan horse? (Contribution to: Cultural Diplomacy at the
Crossroads: Cultural Relations in Europe
and the Wider World, Wilton House, 26 November, 1997). Retrieved December
12, 2014. from: http://www.davidcrystal.community.librios.com –         
Crystal,
David. English as a Global Language,
Second edition,2003. Published in the United States of America by Cambridge
University Press, New York. Retrieved December 12, 2014. from: http:// www.davidcrystal.community.librios.com. –         
Crystal,
David. Languages on the Internet. Cambridge
University Press. Retrieved December 12, 2014. from: http://www.davidcrystal.community.librios.com. –         
Crystal,
David. Crossing the Great Divide:
Language Endangerment and Public Awareness. 2003. (Keynote Speech to the
International Expert Meeting on Endangered Languages, UNESCO, Paris, 10 March,
2003). Retrieved December 12, 2014. from: http://www.davidcrystal.community.librios.com. –         
Crystal
David. David Crystal, Language Death, Cambridge University Press, 2002 – Language
Arts & Disciplines – 198 pages –         
Fishman,
A. Joshua. English in the context of
international societal bilingualism. (1997).  The Spread of English
(329-336). Rowley, Massachusette: Newsbury House. In: House, J. (2003). English
as a Lingua Franca : A threat to multilingualism?. Journal of sociolinguistics.
7 (4), 556-578. –         
House,
Julian. English as a Lingua Franca : A
threat to multilingualism?. 2003. 
Journal of sociolinguistics. 7 (4), 556-578.   –         
Neuner,
Gerhard, G. Policy approaches to English.
Strasbourg: 2002. Language Policy Division. 

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·        
 Qatip Arifi,
Department of English Language, Faculty of English Language, AAB College,                                               
e-mail: [email protected]                                                                      

2 House,
Julian, English as a lingua franca: A threat to multilingualism 2003,
2003.  Journal of sociolinguistics. 7
(4), (557)

3 David
Crystal, English as a Global Language, Second edition,2003. Cambridge
University Press, New York

4 David
Crystal, Language Death, Cambridge
University Press, 2002

5 Chistopher
Bumfrit, English for International
Communication,  Oxford: New York
Pergamon, First ed. C 2001

6 Barbara
Seidlhofer, Understanding English as
Lingua Franca, Oxford University Press 2011,

7 David
Crystal, Crossing the Great Divide:
Language Endangerment and Public Awareness, Keynote Speech to the
International Expert Meeting on Endangered Languages, UNESCO, Paris, 10 March,
2003)

 

8 Crystal,
David, Crossing the Great Divide:
Language Endangerment and Public Awareness. Keynote Speech to the
International Expert Meeting on Endangered Languages, UNESCO, Paris, 10 March,
2003)

9 Breidbach,
Stephan. (2003). Plurilingualism,
democratic citizenship in Europe and the role of English Language Policy
Division, DG IV – Directorate of School, Out-of-School and Higher
Education, Council of Europe, Strasbourg

10 Conference on Languages, diversity,
citizenship: policies for plurilingualism in Europe, Strasbourg, 13-15,
November, 2002. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

11 François
Audigier, Basic Concepts and core
competencies for education for democratic citizenship, Council of Europe,
Strasbourg 26 June 2000

12 Cathie
Carmichael, Conclusions: Language and
National Identity in Europe.. 2000. In: Barbour, S. & Carmichael, C.
(Eds.) Language and Nationalism in Europe
(280-289). Oxford: Oxford University Press

13 Julian
House, English as a lingua franca: A
threat to multilingualism, 2003. Journal of sociolinguistics. 7 (4),
556-578

14 Joshua
A Fishman, English in the context of
international societal bilingualism, 1997, The Spread of English
(329-336).  Rowley, Massachusette:
Newsbury House.

15 Gerhard
Neuner, Policy approaches to English.
Language Policy Division, Council of Europe, Strasbourg: 2002.

16 Julian
House, English as a lingua franca: A threat
to multilingualism, 2003.  Journal of
sociolinguistics. 7 (4), 556-578.