“The that he gave his company, Tesla 100 days

“The world’s largest lithium ion battery has begun dispensingpower into an electricity grid in South Australia”The headline above has been spreading around the world, asTesla accomplished something people deemed impossible.

Tesla is run by ElonMusk, who is the CEO of the company. Tesla is a company that aspires forcleaner energy sources, and have demonstrated that by producing electric cars,power packs for houses and much more.The story started when South-Australia had a widespreadblackout in 2016, that occurred due to storm damage affecting electricitytransmission infrastructure. The cascading failure of the electricitytransmission network resulted in almost the entire state losing its electricitysupply. Elon Musk took matter into his hands and challenged himself, sayingthat he gave his company, Tesla 100 days to build the world’s largest batteryto provide South-Australian homes with electricity, and if they did not meetthe deadline, the state would not have to pay as the company would.

Theymanaged to build it in less than a 100 days and cost them $50 million. They aimto produce half of the state’s renewable electricity by the year of 2025. Withthis giant battery, they are currently giving electricity to 30,000 houses perhour and is located near a wind farm with an electricity generation capacity of315MW of electrical power. Tesla said the expertise theydeveloped whilst building lithium-ion batteries for its cars helped it developthe bigger power packs for the energy storage systems. The batteries used inenergy storage facilities that connect to the grid are not the same as thoseseen in Tesla cars but have some common design elements.It is clear to see that battery technology is becoming thenorm as it is a field with rapid improvements, which has potential to competewith other fuel industries which are currently non-renewable and contribute toglobal warming.

Till this day, Tesla holds the record of building thelargest Lithium-ion battery, whereas Panasonic holds the record of building thesmallest Lithium-ion battery. It has a diameter of 2.5mm and weighs only 0.6g.Because of the size of the battery, the product is suitable for wearabledevices such as smartwatches, as they require less power compared to otherpower-hungry devices. Some may think that due to the size, it might not bebest, but in fact it is highly reliable, recharges quickly and it would beoptimal for near field communication(NFC).

“Technology that took manto the Moon could soon take shoppers regularly to the mall”This second headline, was said from a representative ofCalifornia Fuel Cell Partnership, where they discussed what kind of technologywas used to get Neil Armstrong to space. The technology behind Apollo was fuelcells. They have been known for more than 150 years before the mission to theMoon, but it was used for the spacecraft in 1969, to make sure it functionseffectively. Apollo’s electrical power source was a set of three fuel cells. Thefuel cells used oxygen and hydrogen, stored as liquids at extremely coldtemperatures, that when combined, chemicallyyielded electric power and, as a by-product, water for drinking. The cells eachhad a hydrogen and an oxygen compartment and electrodes that combine to produce27 to 31 volts. Normalpower output for each power plant is 563 to 1420 watts, with a maximum of 2300watts.

The fuel-cell power system was efficient, clean, and pollution-free. After the successful trip to the moon, industries have been tryingto use the same technology in cars, due to it being efficient and waste-free,which would enable industries to have a sustainable future. The car would workon the following principles; it drives withelectricity but unlike a battery, an electric car would have to be plugged into charger, whereas the fuel cell vehicle will make electricity on-board fromthe hydrogen stored in a tank. Like a battery, a fuel cell uses a chemicalprocess to generate electricity. Inside the fuel cell, a catalyst stripshydrogen into positively charged hydrogen ions and electrons.

The positive ionspass across a special membrane and react with oxygen from the air to formwater. The electrons must go around and flow through a circuit to generateelectricity. Even though the technology is there, there are stillquestions and drawbacks for world-wide commercial use, so a few years will goby before this model is popularised. An example of Lithium-ion battery use and one where fuelcells were used have been stated above. The state of the battery and fuel celltechnologies is complicated. At the moment, there are still limitation ofbatteries, that is why Industries are trying to find and research alternativepower sources, mainly fuel cell technology, as it is a clean, renewable source.Batteries Lithium-ion is used in phones, battery packs, cars and nowused to power South-Australia due to their advantages such as their high energydensity, the low rate of self-discharge, low maintenance and many more. Theyare constantly researching and developing to make these batteries better, andhope to have a future where no waste is produced and can rely on electricity topower everything someday.

As previously established, fuel cell is the goal,however for smaller appliances and devices that is not currently possible, whichis why some companies are either trying to improve with Lithium-ion or find analternative source. Big technology and car companies are all tooaware of the limitations of lithium-ion batteries. While chips and operatingsystems are becoming more efficient to save power we’re still only looking at aday or two of use on a smartphone before having to recharge. Thankfully,universities and firms are getting involved.A breakthrough in battery technology comes from Samsung AdvancedInstitute of Technology (SAIT).While everyone loves a thin smartphone,the compromise in battery life that this obsession requires means that most ofthe people find their charge simply not lasting longenough. Samsung has developed a ‘graphene ball’ battery material that not onlyallows for a 45% increase in power density compared to traditional lithium-ionbatteries, but also charging speeds up to five times faster.

Both claims couldhave profound benefits for mobile devices and electric vehicles. For example,right now it takes two hours to charge the iPhone 8 with Apple’s 12W charger,but with this battery it would take 24 minutes. In the electric automotiveindustry, Tesla’s superchargers take 75 minutes to fully charge their Model S,but with Samsung’s breakthrough it would take 15 minutes.

Thedecreased recharge time and high energy density of the battery would have normallyresulted in a higher temperature when recharging, however, Samsung’s newbattery has a very stable temperature of 60oC. This battery couldcompletely change the way electrical devices function. Moreover, thistechnology doesn’t replace the lithium-ion, but the protective anode layer,which means current batteries can be modified with this technology.Researchers say that lithium-ion battery technology is near its full potential.

Some also say that it is hone to perfection, but looking atSamsung’s Galaxy Note 7s, which caught on fire due to the flammable liquid electrolytes, whichcaused a global recall. Firms are trying to replace the liquid electrolyteswith solid electrolytes, which would result in morecompact, higher energy devices. They’realso non-flammable and, in theory, could last longer and charge faster. Smartphones and other devices are becoming more power hungryas days go by, so having a technology implanted like this, is beneficial for all. A developer of solid-statebatteries for Internet of Things devices,say that they could increase ‘cycle life’ from two years to 10 years.

 It might sound like something from a sci-fimovie, but urine powered batteries are a reality, and Bill Gates is fundingthem. It is efficient enough to charge smartphone batteries. Using a MicrobialFuel Cell, micro-organisms take the urine, breakit down and output electricity. On a scale large enough to charge a smartphonethere are several cells into which the urine is passed via tubes.

The unit createselectricity and expels a broken-down version of the waste making it safer todispose of. This technology could be implemented on a large scale for bothtreating waste and powering the grid in the future. The next step for theresearchers is to figure out how to increase the energy output of theurine-based MFCs. They have already discovered that by extending the electrodesin the cell from 4 to 8 mm, power output increasedtenfold, and that stacking the batteries could produce even greater electricaloutput. This is a huge step in the direction of a truly carbon neutralfuture where nothing goes to waste.Fuel cellsWith the changing landscape of theautomotive industry, most players are accelerating their plans to launchelectric vehicles as regulators look to fight increasing pollution withzero-emission vehicles. The growing market of electrical vehicles hasresulted in fuel cell technology research being given a bigger budget so thatthey can build even better vehicles with greater efficiency and zero-emission.

Hydrogen-powered fuel cells are a greenalternative to internal combustion engines because they produce power throughelectrochemical reactions, leaving no pollution behind and are far more efficient. Toyota Motors is focusingon hydrogen fuel cell vehicles with its Mirai brand. While the companyhas sold only 4,000 Mirai fuel cell vehicles since 2014, it has an ambitioustarget of selling 30,000 of these vehicles by 2020. These vehicles areexpensive and currently priced at $52,500. A hydrogen fuel cell vehicle can go312 miles, which is higher than the 300-mile range of Tesla’s Model S and much higherthan other electric vehicles per fuelling, and does not need heavy batteriesfor this range.

 The trump card is range. Toyota claims a312-mile driving range for the Mirai and there is scope to add to that byincreasing the pressure at which hydrogen is stored in the vehicle’s tanks.The disadvantage is that hydrogen cars need a prescribed space around themduring fuelling, and parts must use particular grades of steel. Supervisorsmust have experience of handling hydrogen and other high-pressure gases.Records must be kept of who handles and purchases the fuel.

It is a long wayfrom a self-service gasoline stand. The issue with regulation highlights one ofthe biggest challenges for hydrogen versus batteries. Whereas the latter canuse existing electricity wires, hydrogen needs its own infrastructure. No onewants a fuel-cell car without a fuelling infrastructure, and no one wants topay for the infrastructure until there are cars to use it.To conclude, both battery and fuelcell technologies are advancing and someday could replace the current system,which means a carbon-neutral future is probable, but it may take a while beforethis is achieved. Although both technologies have a potential to replace thecurrent fuel technologies, the firms and industries are still in theirprimitive research and experimentation stage, so they would have to keeptesting, to make sure it is consumer ready, reliable, and efficient to keep asustainable future.

“The world’s largest lithium ion battery has begun dispensingpower into an electricity grid in South Australia”The headline above has been spreading around the world, asTesla accomplished something people deemed impossible. Tesla is run by ElonMusk, who is the CEO of the company. Tesla is a company that aspires forcleaner energy sources, and have demonstrated that by producing electric cars,power packs for houses and much more.

The story started when South-Australia had a widespreadblackout in 2016, that occurred due to storm damage affecting electricitytransmission infrastructure. The cascading failure of the electricitytransmission network resulted in almost the entire state losing its electricitysupply. Elon Musk took matter into his hands and challenged himself, sayingthat he gave his company, Tesla 100 days to build the world’s largest batteryto provide South-Australian homes with electricity, and if they did not meetthe deadline, the state would not have to pay as the company would. Theymanaged to build it in less than a 100 days and cost them $50 million. They aimto produce half of the state’s renewable electricity by the year of 2025. Withthis giant battery, they are currently giving electricity to 30,000 houses perhour and is located near a wind farm with an electricity generation capacity of315MW of electrical power. Tesla said the expertise theydeveloped whilst building lithium-ion batteries for its cars helped it developthe bigger power packs for the energy storage systems. The batteries used inenergy storage facilities that connect to the grid are not the same as thoseseen in Tesla cars but have some common design elements.

It is clear to see that battery technology is becoming thenorm as it is a field with rapid improvements, which has potential to competewith other fuel industries which are currently non-renewable and contribute toglobal warming.Till this day, Tesla holds the record of building thelargest Lithium-ion battery, whereas Panasonic holds the record of building thesmallest Lithium-ion battery. It has a diameter of 2.5mm and weighs only 0.6g.Because of the size of the battery, the product is suitable for wearabledevices such as smartwatches, as they require less power compared to otherpower-hungry devices. Some may think that due to the size, it might not bebest, but in fact it is highly reliable, recharges quickly and it would beoptimal for near field communication(NFC).

“Technology that took manto the Moon could soon take shoppers regularly to the mall”This second headline, was said from a representative ofCalifornia Fuel Cell Partnership, where they discussed what kind of technologywas used to get Neil Armstrong to space. The technology behind Apollo was fuelcells. They have been known for more than 150 years before the mission to theMoon, but it was used for the spacecraft in 1969, to make sure it functionseffectively.

Apollo’s electrical power source was a set of three fuel cells. Thefuel cells used oxygen and hydrogen, stored as liquids at extremely coldtemperatures, that when combined, chemicallyyielded electric power and, as a by-product, water for drinking. The cells eachhad a hydrogen and an oxygen compartment and electrodes that combine to produce27 to 31 volts. Normalpower output for each power plant is 563 to 1420 watts, with a maximum of 2300watts. The fuel-cell power system was efficient, clean, and pollution-free. After the successful trip to the moon, industries have been tryingto use the same technology in cars, due to it being efficient and waste-free,which would enable industries to have a sustainable future.

The car would workon the following principles; it drives withelectricity but unlike a battery, an electric car would have to be plugged into charger, whereas the fuel cell vehicle will make electricity on-board fromthe hydrogen stored in a tank. Like a battery, a fuel cell uses a chemicalprocess to generate electricity. Inside the fuel cell, a catalyst stripshydrogen into positively charged hydrogen ions and electrons. The positive ionspass across a special membrane and react with oxygen from the air to formwater. The electrons must go around and flow through a circuit to generateelectricity.

Even though the technology is there, there are stillquestions and drawbacks for world-wide commercial use, so a few years will goby before this model is popularised. An example of Lithium-ion battery use and one where fuelcells were used have been stated above. The state of the battery and fuel celltechnologies is complicated. At the moment, there are still limitation ofbatteries, that is why Industries are trying to find and research alternativepower sources, mainly fuel cell technology, as it is a clean, renewable source.Batteries Lithium-ion is used in phones, battery packs, cars and nowused to power South-Australia due to their advantages such as their high energydensity, the low rate of self-discharge, low maintenance and many more. Theyare constantly researching and developing to make these batteries better, andhope to have a future where no waste is produced and can rely on electricity topower everything someday. As previously established, fuel cell is the goal,however for smaller appliances and devices that is not currently possible, whichis why some companies are either trying to improve with Lithium-ion or find analternative source. Big technology and car companies are all tooaware of the limitations of lithium-ion batteries.

While chips and operatingsystems are becoming more efficient to save power we’re still only looking at aday or two of use on a smartphone before having to recharge. Thankfully,universities and firms are getting involved.A breakthrough in battery technology comes from Samsung AdvancedInstitute of Technology (SAIT).While everyone loves a thin smartphone,the compromise in battery life that this obsession requires means that most ofthe people find their charge simply not lasting longenough. Samsung has developed a ‘graphene ball’ battery material that not onlyallows for a 45% increase in power density compared to traditional lithium-ionbatteries, but also charging speeds up to five times faster. Both claims couldhave profound benefits for mobile devices and electric vehicles. For example,right now it takes two hours to charge the iPhone 8 with Apple’s 12W charger,but with this battery it would take 24 minutes. In the electric automotiveindustry, Tesla’s superchargers take 75 minutes to fully charge their Model S,but with Samsung’s breakthrough it would take 15 minutes.

Thedecreased recharge time and high energy density of the battery would have normallyresulted in a higher temperature when recharging, however, Samsung’s newbattery has a very stable temperature of 60oC. This battery couldcompletely change the way electrical devices function. Moreover, thistechnology doesn’t replace the lithium-ion, but the protective anode layer,which means current batteries can be modified with this technology.Researchers say that lithium-ion battery technology is near its full potential. Some also say that it is hone to perfection, but looking atSamsung’s Galaxy Note 7s, which caught on fire due to the flammable liquid electrolytes, whichcaused a global recall. Firms are trying to replace the liquid electrolyteswith solid electrolytes, which would result in morecompact, higher energy devices. They’realso non-flammable and, in theory, could last longer and charge faster. Smartphones and other devices are becoming more power hungryas days go by, so having a technology implanted like this, is beneficial for all.

A developer of solid-statebatteries for Internet of Things devices,say that they could increase ‘cycle life’ from two years to 10 years. It might sound like something from a sci-fimovie, but urine powered batteries are a reality, and Bill Gates is fundingthem. It is efficient enough to charge smartphone batteries. Using a MicrobialFuel Cell, micro-organisms take the urine, breakit down and output electricity. On a scale large enough to charge a smartphonethere are several cells into which the urine is passed via tubes.

The unit createselectricity and expels a broken-down version of the waste making it safer todispose of. This technology could be implemented on a large scale for bothtreating waste and powering the grid in the future. The next step for theresearchers is to figure out how to increase the energy output of theurine-based MFCs. They have already discovered that by extending the electrodesin the cell from 4 to 8 mm, power output increasedtenfold, and that stacking the batteries could produce even greater electricaloutput. This is a huge step in the direction of a truly carbon neutralfuture where nothing goes to waste.

Fuel cellsWith the changing landscape of theautomotive industry, most players are accelerating their plans to launchelectric vehicles as regulators look to fight increasing pollution withzero-emission vehicles. The growing market of electrical vehicles hasresulted in fuel cell technology research being given a bigger budget so thatthey can build even better vehicles with greater efficiency and zero-emission. Hydrogen-powered fuel cells are a greenalternative to internal combustion engines because they produce power throughelectrochemical reactions, leaving no pollution behind and are far more efficient. Toyota Motors is focusingon hydrogen fuel cell vehicles with its Mirai brand.

While the companyhas sold only 4,000 Mirai fuel cell vehicles since 2014, it has an ambitioustarget of selling 30,000 of these vehicles by 2020. These vehicles areexpensive and currently priced at $52,500. A hydrogen fuel cell vehicle can go312 miles, which is higher than the 300-mile range of Tesla’s Model S and much higherthan other electric vehicles per fuelling, and does not need heavy batteriesfor this range.

 The trump card is range. Toyota claims a312-mile driving range for the Mirai and there is scope to add to that byincreasing the pressure at which hydrogen is stored in the vehicle’s tanks.The disadvantage is that hydrogen cars need a prescribed space around themduring fuelling, and parts must use particular grades of steel. Supervisorsmust have experience of handling hydrogen and other high-pressure gases.Records must be kept of who handles and purchases the fuel. It is a long wayfrom a self-service gasoline stand.

The issue with regulation highlights one ofthe biggest challenges for hydrogen versus batteries. Whereas the latter canuse existing electricity wires, hydrogen needs its own infrastructure. No onewants a fuel-cell car without a fuelling infrastructure, and no one wants topay for the infrastructure until there are cars to use it.To conclude, both battery and fuelcell technologies are advancing and someday could replace the current system,which means a carbon-neutral future is probable, but it may take a while beforethis is achieved.

Although both technologies have a potential to replace thecurrent fuel technologies, the firms and industries are still in theirprimitive research and experimentation stage, so they would have to keeptesting, to make sure it is consumer ready, reliable, and efficient to keep asustainable future.

“The that he gave his company, Tesla 100 days

“The world’s largest lithium ion battery has begun dispensingpower into an electricity grid in South Australia”The headline above has been spreading around the world, asTesla accomplished something people deemed impossible. Tesla is run by ElonMusk, who is the CEO of the company. Tesla is a company that aspires forcleaner energy sources, and have demonstrated that by producing electric cars,power packs for houses and much more.The story started when South-Australia had a widespreadblackout in 2016, that occurred due to storm damage affecting electricitytransmission infrastructure. The cascading failure of the electricitytransmission network resulted in almost the entire state losing its electricitysupply. Elon Musk took matter into his hands and challenged himself, sayingthat he gave his company, Tesla 100 days to build the world’s largest batteryto provide South-Australian homes with electricity, and if they did not meetthe deadline, the state would not have to pay as the company would. Theymanaged to build it in less than a 100 days and cost them $50 million. They aimto produce half of the state’s renewable electricity by the year of 2025.

Withthis giant battery, they are currently giving electricity to 30,000 houses perhour and is located near a wind farm with an electricity generation capacity of315MW of electrical power. Tesla said the expertise theydeveloped whilst building lithium-ion batteries for its cars helped it developthe bigger power packs for the energy storage systems. The batteries used inenergy storage facilities that connect to the grid are not the same as thoseseen in Tesla cars but have some common design elements.It is clear to see that battery technology is becoming thenorm as it is a field with rapid improvements, which has potential to competewith other fuel industries which are currently non-renewable and contribute toglobal warming.Till this day, Tesla holds the record of building thelargest Lithium-ion battery, whereas Panasonic holds the record of building thesmallest Lithium-ion battery. It has a diameter of 2.5mm and weighs only 0.6g.

Because of the size of the battery, the product is suitable for wearabledevices such as smartwatches, as they require less power compared to otherpower-hungry devices. Some may think that due to the size, it might not bebest, but in fact it is highly reliable, recharges quickly and it would beoptimal for near field communication(NFC).”Technology that took manto the Moon could soon take shoppers regularly to the mall”This second headline, was said from a representative ofCalifornia Fuel Cell Partnership, where they discussed what kind of technologywas used to get Neil Armstrong to space. The technology behind Apollo was fuelcells. They have been known for more than 150 years before the mission to theMoon, but it was used for the spacecraft in 1969, to make sure it functionseffectively.

Apollo’s electrical power source was a set of three fuel cells. Thefuel cells used oxygen and hydrogen, stored as liquids at extremely coldtemperatures, that when combined, chemicallyyielded electric power and, as a by-product, water for drinking. The cells eachhad a hydrogen and an oxygen compartment and electrodes that combine to produce27 to 31 volts.

Normalpower output for each power plant is 563 to 1420 watts, with a maximum of 2300watts. The fuel-cell power system was efficient, clean, and pollution-free. After the successful trip to the moon, industries have been tryingto use the same technology in cars, due to it being efficient and waste-free,which would enable industries to have a sustainable future. The car would workon the following principles; it drives withelectricity but unlike a battery, an electric car would have to be plugged into charger, whereas the fuel cell vehicle will make electricity on-board fromthe hydrogen stored in a tank. Like a battery, a fuel cell uses a chemicalprocess to generate electricity. Inside the fuel cell, a catalyst stripshydrogen into positively charged hydrogen ions and electrons. The positive ionspass across a special membrane and react with oxygen from the air to formwater.

The electrons must go around and flow through a circuit to generateelectricity. Even though the technology is there, there are stillquestions and drawbacks for world-wide commercial use, so a few years will goby before this model is popularised. An example of Lithium-ion battery use and one where fuelcells were used have been stated above. The state of the battery and fuel celltechnologies is complicated. At the moment, there are still limitation ofbatteries, that is why Industries are trying to find and research alternativepower sources, mainly fuel cell technology, as it is a clean, renewable source.Batteries Lithium-ion is used in phones, battery packs, cars and nowused to power South-Australia due to their advantages such as their high energydensity, the low rate of self-discharge, low maintenance and many more.

Theyare constantly researching and developing to make these batteries better, andhope to have a future where no waste is produced and can rely on electricity topower everything someday. As previously established, fuel cell is the goal,however for smaller appliances and devices that is not currently possible, whichis why some companies are either trying to improve with Lithium-ion or find analternative source. Big technology and car companies are all tooaware of the limitations of lithium-ion batteries. While chips and operatingsystems are becoming more efficient to save power we’re still only looking at aday or two of use on a smartphone before having to recharge. Thankfully,universities and firms are getting involved.A breakthrough in battery technology comes from Samsung AdvancedInstitute of Technology (SAIT).

While everyone loves a thin smartphone,the compromise in battery life that this obsession requires means that most ofthe people find their charge simply not lasting longenough. Samsung has developed a ‘graphene ball’ battery material that not onlyallows for a 45% increase in power density compared to traditional lithium-ionbatteries, but also charging speeds up to five times faster. Both claims couldhave profound benefits for mobile devices and electric vehicles. For example,right now it takes two hours to charge the iPhone 8 with Apple’s 12W charger,but with this battery it would take 24 minutes. In the electric automotiveindustry, Tesla’s superchargers take 75 minutes to fully charge their Model S,but with Samsung’s breakthrough it would take 15 minutes.

Thedecreased recharge time and high energy density of the battery would have normallyresulted in a higher temperature when recharging, however, Samsung’s newbattery has a very stable temperature of 60oC. This battery couldcompletely change the way electrical devices function. Moreover, thistechnology doesn’t replace the lithium-ion, but the protective anode layer,which means current batteries can be modified with this technology.Researchers say that lithium-ion battery technology is near its full potential. Some also say that it is hone to perfection, but looking atSamsung’s Galaxy Note 7s, which caught on fire due to the flammable liquid electrolytes, whichcaused a global recall. Firms are trying to replace the liquid electrolyteswith solid electrolytes, which would result in morecompact, higher energy devices.

They’realso non-flammable and, in theory, could last longer and charge faster. Smartphones and other devices are becoming more power hungryas days go by, so having a technology implanted like this, is beneficial for all. A developer of solid-statebatteries for Internet of Things devices,say that they could increase ‘cycle life’ from two years to 10 years. It might sound like something from a sci-fimovie, but urine powered batteries are a reality, and Bill Gates is fundingthem. It is efficient enough to charge smartphone batteries.

Using a MicrobialFuel Cell, micro-organisms take the urine, breakit down and output electricity. On a scale large enough to charge a smartphonethere are several cells into which the urine is passed via tubes. The unit createselectricity and expels a broken-down version of the waste making it safer todispose of. This technology could be implemented on a large scale for bothtreating waste and powering the grid in the future.

The next step for theresearchers is to figure out how to increase the energy output of theurine-based MFCs. They have already discovered that by extending the electrodesin the cell from 4 to 8 mm, power output increasedtenfold, and that stacking the batteries could produce even greater electricaloutput. This is a huge step in the direction of a truly carbon neutralfuture where nothing goes to waste.Fuel cellsWith the changing landscape of theautomotive industry, most players are accelerating their plans to launchelectric vehicles as regulators look to fight increasing pollution withzero-emission vehicles. The growing market of electrical vehicles hasresulted in fuel cell technology research being given a bigger budget so thatthey can build even better vehicles with greater efficiency and zero-emission. Hydrogen-powered fuel cells are a greenalternative to internal combustion engines because they produce power throughelectrochemical reactions, leaving no pollution behind and are far more efficient.

 Toyota Motors is focusingon hydrogen fuel cell vehicles with its Mirai brand. While the companyhas sold only 4,000 Mirai fuel cell vehicles since 2014, it has an ambitioustarget of selling 30,000 of these vehicles by 2020. These vehicles areexpensive and currently priced at $52,500. A hydrogen fuel cell vehicle can go312 miles, which is higher than the 300-mile range of Tesla’s Model S and much higherthan other electric vehicles per fuelling, and does not need heavy batteriesfor this range. The trump card is range.

Toyota claims a312-mile driving range for the Mirai and there is scope to add to that byincreasing the pressure at which hydrogen is stored in the vehicle’s tanks.The disadvantage is that hydrogen cars need a prescribed space around themduring fuelling, and parts must use particular grades of steel. Supervisorsmust have experience of handling hydrogen and other high-pressure gases.Records must be kept of who handles and purchases the fuel. It is a long wayfrom a self-service gasoline stand. The issue with regulation highlights one ofthe biggest challenges for hydrogen versus batteries.

Whereas the latter canuse existing electricity wires, hydrogen needs its own infrastructure. No onewants a fuel-cell car without a fuelling infrastructure, and no one wants topay for the infrastructure until there are cars to use it.To conclude, both battery and fuelcell technologies are advancing and someday could replace the current system,which means a carbon-neutral future is probable, but it may take a while beforethis is achieved. Although both technologies have a potential to replace thecurrent fuel technologies, the firms and industries are still in theirprimitive research and experimentation stage, so they would have to keeptesting, to make sure it is consumer ready, reliable, and efficient to keep asustainable future.