The Main Role of Youth in Preserving the TraditionalIndonesian Culture to Face the Threat of Diffusion from Globalization in theDigital Era Muhammad IriandruPradipta Putra, Industrial EngineeringFaculty ofEngineeringUniversitasSebelas Maret SurakartaEmail: [email protected]
com ABSTRACTIndonesia has been known as a nationwith remarkable artistic works and traditional cultures. Traditional cultureexpressions in Indonesia have been so vary because many ethnics are living inIndonesia with higher level of artistic creativities and traditional cultureexpressions. But in current condition, traditional culture just start losingtheir existancy in society. There is no successor for the next generation thatcare about the existancy of the traditional culture, making itworse. The reasonwhy the youth is the main pioneer because they have big spirit and havecreativity without limits. In the traditional culture life, it is necessary forthe youth to have a positive perception and need to participate in an effort topreserve the traditional culture.
Cultures are potential element which is ableto support national strength in a nation. Thus, they have to be managed so thatthey will give maximal benefits for both the people and the state. But nowadays, they are more proud to followthe foreign culture that enters into their lives and they are reluctant topreserve our own culture. Imagine the our children in the future do notrecognize the culture that we have, they only know the foreign culture thatgrowing rapidly. In this essay also discusses the influence of globalization inthe digital era on traditional culture that will make the diffusion processwill occur quickly. The globalization is getting bigger and getting fasterevery year.
The positive advantages from globalization is the technologyadvances. Because of that we live in era that usually known as digital era. Thereis many advantages that we can get from the technology advances, internet forthe example. We acknowledge that internet is the mos greatest invention. But,internet is one of science and technology product which is its usage can badlyaffect the youth. It is because they are still hunger of information, trying tosearch their lives meaning and identities. Lack of awareness of thepreservation of our culture leads to an indifferent attitude toward thedevelopment of our culture and effect to our culture that obscured by incomingforeign culture. Surely, we also do not want the traditional culture that stillexist also dissapear.
Key word: Culture, Difussion, Digital,Globalization, Traditional culture, Youth Preliminary Alongwith the rapid development of the times there have been many changes on lifestylein society. Behavior in cultures is one that changes. Nowadays, society preferto use incoming foreign cultures rather than using our own culture which hasexisted for a long time. It makes our culture difficult to grow and evendisappear. Majority of society now assume that foreign culture is much betterand freely from the rules of our own culture. This is also possible because ofour lack of filtering out the culture that goes into our environment, so thatforeign culture freely circulated among us without through the screeningprocess first. Coupled with globalization that makes foreign culture easierinto Indonesia.Globalizationbring many positive and negative influence.
The positive impact ofglobalization, technology and transportation are more advanced, science is alsoevolving. But, because of the influence of globalization, there are manyforeign cultures also come to our country. Because of that, many youth preferforeign culture rather than traditional culture. It is because of their mindsetthat if foreign culture is more modern and more popular, so their awareness inpreserving traditional culture is vanished.
Because of that, we associety should be worrying about the existancy of traditional culture. In thepast, the traditional culture in our country was uncountable because of itswide variety. Traditional dance, traditional language, traditional musicalinstruments, and many more. But nowadays, there is just a few traditional culturein our country. It is rare now to see youth willing to concern the traditionalculture of our country. Because their beliefs about traditional culture arewrong. They are ashamed to admit if traditional culture is their culture.
If we are filtering outthe incoming foreign culture wisely, then traditional culture has the greateropportunity to grow. We can not imagine if the foreign culture entered withoutany limitations. Our existing culture will be lost and abandoned. It will bedifferent if we can restrict the incoming foreign culture then our existingculture will still be used because there is still space to grow among thecommunity itself.
Literature ReviewCultureCultureis the social behavior and norms in human societies. Culture is considered acentral concept in anthropologhy, encompassing the range of phenomena that aretransmitted through social learning in human societies. Some aspects of humanbehavior, social practices such as culture, sxpenssive forms such as art,music, dance, ritual, and religion, and technologies such as tool usage,cooking, shelter and clothing are said to be cultural universals, found in allhuman societies. The concept of material culture coversthe physical expressions of culture, such as technology, architecture and art,whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of socialorganization (including practices of political organization and socialinstitution), mythology, philosopy, literature (both written and oral), andscience comprise the intangible heritage of a society.
Culturein English is similarly as “budaya” in Indonesian. The word “budaya” itselfroots from Sanskrit “budhayah” meaning as thought or intellectuality. Ingeneral, culture may be defined as a something produced by the thought andintellectuality of humans when they develop and maintain their life within theirenvironment.
CulturalDiffusionIn cultural anthropology and cultural geography, culturaldiffusion, as conceptualized by Leo Frobenius in his 1897/98 publication Der westafrikanische Kulturkreis, is the spread of cultural itemssuch as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages, and etc. Betweenindividuals, wther within a single culture from one culture to another. It isdisticnt from the diffusion of innovations within a specific culture. Throughcultural diffusion, horizons are broadened and people become more culturallyrich.
The mixing of world cultures throughdifferent ethnicities, religions, and nationalities has only increased withadvanced communication, transportation, and technology.GlobalizationGlobalization is the increasing interaction of people, states, orcountries through the growth of the international flow of money, ideas, andculture. Globalization is primarily an economic process of integration that hassocial and cultural aspects. It involves goods and services, and the economicresources of technology, data, and capital. The steam locomotive, jet engine, steamship, and container ships are someof the advances in the means of transport while the riseof the telegraph andits modern offspring, the smart phone and internet show developmentin telecommunications advances. All of these improvements we enjoy inthe modern era have been major factors in globalization and have generatedfurther interdependence of economic and culturalactivities.SocietySociety isa group of people involvedin persistent social interaction, or alarge social group sharingthe same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the samepolitical authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Societies arecharacterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) betweenindividuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given societymay be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituentof members. In the social sciences, a largersociety often evinces stratificationor dominance patterns in subgroups.Youth Youth isthe time of life when one is young, and often means the time between childhood and adulthood (maturity). It is also defined as “the appearance, freshness,vigor, spirit, and etc.”. Its definitions of a specific agerange varies, as youth is not defined chronologically as a stagethat can be tied to specific age ranges. Youth is an experience that may shapean individual’s level of dependency, which can be marked in various waysaccording to different cultural perspectives.DiscussionIndonesia is really a bigcountry.
From Sabang to Merauke, Indonesiahas an estimated 17,508 islands, but only around 6.000 islands areinhabited. It comprises five main islands, which are Sumatra, Jawa,Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua (the western half of Papua New Guinea).
With apopulation of 258.316.051 (CIA World Factbook, 2016) people, Indonesia is considered as thefourth most populous nation, and 58% of its people live in Java Island. Thelarge population also brings about the diversity.Indonesia has grown rapidlysince independence 72 years ago.
Not only because of its vast area, Indonesiais also known as a country that has magnificent nature. Lots of very beautifultourist destinations, even one of them have entered as the world seven wonder. Indonesiaalso has various ethnic group that widespread everywhere throughout the region.Each ethnic group has different languages, food, customs, traditions and etc.The culture of each ethnic group in Indonesia is very diverse, from culture thatheld annually, to culture that held daily.
Ninety-fivepercent of over 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia are of native Indonesianancestry. The ethnic groups in Indonesia, in order of size, are as follows:Javanese, which makes up nearly 42% of the total population; Sundanese, 31%;Malay, 3.7%; Maduranese, 3.3%, and others, 26%.
The Javanese live mostlyin Java Island, but due to government transmigration programs, millions havemigrated to other islands throughout the archipelago. There are also ethnicChinese populations, which make up 1% of the total population. Indians andArabs live mostly in urban areas. However,they can live together peacefully with spirit of “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika”.
Indonesia is knownfor its diverse cultures. There is no exact number that can be mention thenumber of cultures in Indonesia. Around hundreds of cultures are widespreadthroughout Indonesia. Traditional culture in Indonesia can form traditional houses,dance, singing, clothing food, and etc.
Only few people just know the widelyknown culture such as Padang, Java, Kalimantan and others. In addition, thereare many areas that have cultural diversity. Lack of information of the otherscultures makes only few people know about that. Traditional culture has evolveuntil now.Indonesian culture and art reflects regional histories,relegions and influences of the archipelago’s mind-boggling array of ethnicgroups. Indonesia arts can be classified in to the three main streams withinIndonesia. The first, is that of the outer Indonesia, the islands of Sumatra,Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, Papua and Maluku, which havestrong animist traditions.
Carvings, weaving, pottery etc, have developed froma tribal art in which art objects are part of worship. The second stream isthat inner Indonesia, the islands of Java and Bali that have come under thegreatest influence from Hindu-Budha tradition. The Technique and styles thatbuilt Borobudur and the Indian Epicssuch as The Mahabarata, that form the basis for wayang theatre are still amajor influence in arts. The third influences is that of Islam, which not somuch introduced its own art & crafts traditions, but modified existingtraditions.In history,Indonesian culture has existed since the time of the empire.
Beginning aroundthe 2nd century, there are many empires in our country. The Kutai Empire,Tarumanegara, Singasari, Majapahit, Demak, Malaka and others are some large empiresthat had grown in Indonesia, even the Majapahit Empires is the largest empirein Indonesia. Stretching from Java, Sumatra, peninsula Malaya, until east. Majapahitwas one of the last big empires of the region and is considered to be one ofthe greatest empires in the history of Indonesia and even in Southeast Asia.
The Majapahit Empire influenced manyIndonesian cultures from literary arts to building.The culturecontinues to grow until now. However, the development of culture in Indonesiahas fluctuate in its journey. That cultures, should be preserved by us becauseof that is a valuable treasure that will make our country keep beautiful at itsway.
As youth, we also should be proud to the traditional culture. But lately, theculture has begun to be forgotten along with the emergence of a foreign culture,also we can say a modern culture. Technological advancements coupled with the easierof access that can allow the foreign culture into Indonesia. In the current eraof globalization, access to foreign cultures in Indonesia is getting easier. Manyforeign life and foreign culture which is for youth as modern culture, caneliminate indigenous culture of Indonesia.
Fidget spinner,slime, party, hip-hop music, and even Korean pop or Korean drama are someexamples of foreign cultures that enter Indonesia and spread to everywhere.Many of youth even kids just enjoy the trend. They think it will be cool ifthey follow the trend. Some of them, willing to spend a lot of money just tofollow the trend. Actually, if we act ordinary to this trend and not tooexcessive then the bad consequences will not happen.
The fact is quitedifferent, they follow this trend even they think this trend is everything.Because youth are more attracted tothese things, traditional cultures are threatened since youth prefer foreigncultures beside of their own culture.As mentionedbefore, one of the key factors in the degradation of Indonesian culture is thereare no future generations who care about Indonesian culture. Many of youthprefer foreign cultures that they think more cool, modern, and not ancient. Comparedto youth, adults are knowing more about traditional culture and activelypreserving them. Usually we see traditional dance or traditional music players thatare those who are no longer young. They always try to introduce traditionalculture to the public in the hope that there will be future generations whospirit to participate in preserving traditional culture.If we not doinganything, then that conditions will make the traditional culture vanished fromthe life of society.
Even though, traditional culture is a very valuable assetand needs to be preserved. Traditional culture will lose with technologyadvances, that may be more interesting when compared to our culture. With technologyadvances, people can easily get entertainment that makes them happy than justpreserving traditional culture.Living in thedigital era is a good advantage but can become very dependent to it. Most ofthe youth today can not be separated from that kind of technology in dailylife.
Actually,the technology advancesis good if used for activities that are beneficial and in reasonable portions.The use of internet for lifestyle is one of them. Asosiasi Penyelenggara JasaInternet Indonesia (APJII) make a national survey of Indonesian internet usersin 2016. The results show that the number of Internet users in Indonesia in2016 is 132.
7 million users or about 51% of the total population of Indonesia.Mostly, Internet users are on Java Island with a total of 86.339.350 users orabout 65% of the total use of the Internet. Compared to the users of InternetIndonesia in 2014 there are 88.
1 million users. There is an increase of 44.6million within 2 years (2014 – 2016) and this number will continue to growevery year.The advancement ofinformation technology or communications technology has been trigger thecultural diffusion, while also becoming an alternative to get entertainment forthe society especially youth. As a result, there is no interest to enjoy thetraditional performing arts. For the example is the traditional art of wayangorang on Balekambang Park Surakarta.
Wayang orang is one of the traditionalculture which is usually played with two until ten people, the show should bevery interesting. But in Balekambang, there is just a few people that enjoy theshow and there is no youth in there. This is unfortunate since the wayang orangis one of traditional Indonesian art that we can get the moral messages fromthe story.Indonesian traditional artists expressed the belief thatthree components were essential to the continued vitality of traditional artsin a community.
First, they are actively concerned about documenting tradition,not as an end in itself, but so that knowledge of the old ways is not lost tothe community. Such documentation can take a multitude of different forms, butit is critical. Second, they understand that contemporary youth represent aproblematic link in the chain along which such knowledge can be transmitted.Because today’s young women and men are distracted by a multitude of culturalsignals (from popular entertainment to the content of formal education), thereis a risk that they will disengage from the traditional arts. Third, on aclosely related point, artists and their communities recognize that thecontinued health of their practices will depend, to a significant extent, ontheir ability to satisfy audiences who live in new social circumstances.Wayang orang is asmall example of the traditional arts that began to be forgotten due to theincessant foreign culture entering Indonesia.
It could be that this phenomenonis not only experienced by traditional Javanese arts, but also in variousexpressions of traditional art in various places in Indonesia. Globalizationseems to be a boomerang in the cultural aspect for our country.Slowly but sure,globalization has caused the traditional culture vanished.
Youth choose spendtheir time accessing the internet than the learn of traditional dance fromtheir own culture. They will feel proud can imitate the foreign style andconsider the traditional culture are not cool and very ancient.If we reviewedthrough a global aspect, globalization coupled with the rapid advancement oftechnology becomes a challenge for all aspects of life as well as thoseassociated with culture. This era, demands our readiness to adjust the futureand be able to take every opportunity. Traditional culture in Indonesia isactually more creative and not imitative, which becomes a problem is tomaintain the identity of our nation.
As a simple example, the culture inIndonesia is now almost eroded, people live individually and do not want toknow with others is a reflection that seems today.Culture should bepriceless, but now it becomes not valuable in the society. This disrespectfulattitude has a bad effect on the development of traditional culture in ourcountry.
One of the way to preserve traditional culture is the attitudes andbehavior of their own people, especially youth as the next generation. If inevery person there is a strong nationalism spirit, preserving the traditionalculture is a pride, but the youth generation today assume the opposite. Theybelieve that strive to preserve the culture its a compulsion. So the sustainabilityof the traditional culture also depends heavily on the youth who havenasionalism spirit.But, society alsodo not necessarily close themselves from the world. We must keep our mind openand always be prepared if there is a greater wave of globalization. Alwaysfollow the positive trend and technology advances is also needed so thatIndonesia is not getting worse. Globalization will always provide change, wemust choose wisely whether these cultures are positive or negative.
That way wecan accept foreign cultures smartly by emphasizing nationalismAs youth, we must besmart in exploiting the technology advances. Actually technology advances canbe used for preserving traditional culture. Such as creating an application thatcontains about the culture of Indonesia and packaged with attractive content.So, the children who since they born are in the digital era can participate inpreserving traditional culture at least introduced them to traditionalcultures.
If youth are not wise in using technology advances, of course it willmake the culture of Indonesia will gradually dissapear because the nextgeneration is prefer digital entertainment and choose to imitate the foreignlife which is they see in their social media. If that is allowed, not only the traditionalculture that will disappear but also make the pride of the country is reduced.They became a person who forgot his identity as a society who live in Indonesia.For the youngergeneration, who will be successors of Indonesia, have big spirit of nationalismare needed evenits a must. Not only for the sake of politics that we arerequired to have nationalist spirit, but in maintaining and preserving theculture is also needed. We need to be aware to maintain the historical heritagethat is not easy, it takes a great sacrifice too.
A few of youth is not enough,need all of youth in Indonesia to move together to save traditional culture, togethernessto support each other and fill each other is needed too. In other words,preserving the traditional culture is also required compactness and supporteach other to block the negative impacts from globalization in digital era. ConclusionIndonesia is alarge country with all its uniqueness and cultural diversity that is widespreadfrom Sabang to Merauke. Traditional Indonesian culture is an ancestral heritagethat has existed since long time ago.
However, the existence of traditionalculture began to erode because most youth who are the next generation of thenation prefer foreign culture than its own culture. This is exacerbated by thebig wave of globalization and rapid technological advances so that youth preferdigital entertainment beside of traditional culture.Living in the digital era is challenging.
Society,especially youth, must be smart in respond the wave of globalization. All ofyouth should be smart in choosing which foreign culture are positive and whichare negative. By filtering it first, then the traditional culture will stillalive but also remain aware the trend. Youth must be creative in exploitingtechnological advancesin order to preserve the traditional culture. Coupledwith the spirit of nationalism, youth must grow up with a pride being the nextgeneration of Indonesia Referencess