The 1960’s and 1970’s were a time in which people around the world were beginning to think about themselves, and not the stereotypes they were bound to. People began having their own sense of style and instead of following society’s rules, they followed their own. Not only were some becoming self-aware, but some were also beginning to become aware about the people around them and the rights they were lacking.
Civil rights, women’s rights, and gay rights protests broke out. Environmental commercials warning people about pollution also began to come to light as humans continued to build and innovate. Scientific and medical progress warned that pollution did not only affect the environment, but was also hazardous to one’s health. Many inventions were also made during the 1960’s and 1970’s; some aided to pollution in the environment such as pull-tabs. These innovations through business, science, and medicine that affected the environment began to be heard in music as well. The world was finally beginning to listen, and was becoming aware that the slope of joy in luxury and carelessness would begin to recede unless something was done.The Decades Birds Fell From the Sky______________________________________________________________________________ Put away that D.
D.T. now. Give me spots on my apples.
But leave me the birds and the bees. Joni Mitchell, “Big Yellow Taxi”______________________________________________________________________________Environmental changes caused by human pollution was one of the biggest threats in the 1960s and 1970s. Pollution caused smog, coal-ridden water, change in climate, and birds were even beginning to fall from the sky. Thousands of people died around the world due to dirty air from asphyxiation. If a person did not suffocate due to the smog, they most likely caught a sickness.
New York City was one of the many places in the world that had the most smog. Automobiles in the 1960’s and 1970’s were one of the causes for smog because the emissions that came from the car were not filtered. Cars did not only affect the biosphere, the emissions also were released up and into the atmosphere, where the ozone layer is. The ozone layer protects the Earth from the sun’s heat, and as the gases reach the ozone layer, the glasses break down the layer, and aid to the global warming during the 60’s and 70’s. Wearing a mask to protect one from the toxic air was not out of the ordinary in the 60’s and 70’s. Smog affected the human necessity of air so much that this black fog still affects the world today by causing sickness. Another human necessity spoiled by pollution was water.
Factories and companies were dumping pollutants and chemical waste directly into rivers, streams and other waterways. In 1969, many factories that had dumped a chemical waste into the Cuyahoga River caused the river to catch on fire when a spark from a train ignited oil on the top of the river. Within the same year, an oil spill occurred in California, causing the beaches that were littered with the oil to turn dark. Coal-ridden water began causing sickness between both people and animals.
For many, their water was colored gray and black. Public service announcements were sent out by the organization Keep America Beautiful to warn the public about pollution, and the announcements held the slogan of, “People start pollution, people can stop it.” Two of these announcements were called “Canoe” and “Horse”. The announcements showed a man dressed as an Indian rowing his canoe through a dirty river, and riding a horse alongside the bank of a polluted river. Pollution from waste was not the only man-made substance affecting the environment.
Human fertilizers also began affecting the environment. Bees and birds who came in contact with the fertilizers, whether it be by accident or pollination often ended up dying. The use of nuclear science also aided to pollution, such as when in 1979, there was a close call at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. Despite the avoided meltdown, radioactive water and steam still leaked from the plant. Medical, Surgical, and Pharmaceutical Advancements ______________________________________________________________________________One pill makes you larger, And one pill makes you small. Jefferson Airplane, “White Rabbit” ______________________________________________________________________________ Medical advancements in the 1960s and 1970s, although aiding in environmental pollution, also affected humanity greatly in both good and bad senses.
Many new inventions for surgical and pharmaceutical use were brought to the public. Narcotic use was also widely known, despite medical warnings. Not only were there inventions, but also achievements in just how far a surgeon’s skill could take them. The U.S. Congress also recognized wide-spread habits were hazardous, such as smoking cigarettes, and labeled all cigarette packages to be labeled as hazardous in 1965. The 1960’s held many medical improvements, such as in 1960, any foreign doctors must pass a test in order to practice in the United States. Blood from a dead body, in May of 1961, was successfully used in a transfusion, a year later the use of chemotherapy and radiation were introduced to fight leukemia in 1962.
Two surgical achievements that took place in 1962 were when surgeons successfully reattached a boy’s severed arm, and the first kidney transplant of a non-relative donor was performed. Surgical achievements and medical inventions were not the only medicine-related advancements in the 1960s and 1970s, the government also aided in medical improvements. In 1962, the American government considered many proposals for proper elderly health insurance.
Pharmaceutical changes such as the first public measles vaccine was released in 1963, along with medicine used for anxiety and ecliptic convulsions introduced as Valium. Bayer aspirin tablets were produced a year later, in 1964. In 1963, two more surgical transplants were performed on the lung and liver. Organ transplants did not stop there. A man named Christiaan Barnard performed the first heart transplant in South Africa, 1967. Two years after that, in 1969, the first complete artificial heart transplant was performed.
Only three years before, a stapling device for easily sealing wounds was invented in 1966. A year after that, researchers found fluoridated water to help reduce cavities in teeth. The 1970’s was no different from the 1960’s when it came to medical advancements. The first computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan was invention by Robert S. Ledley in 1975, and in the five years before this influential invention, vaccines for smallpox and a deadly German disease called rubella were made. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was invented in 1978 by Dr. Raymond V.
Damadian . Like the CAT scan, the MRI is an influential invention. Organizations and Medicine When it came to medicine, the organizations did more than put warning labels on cigarettes. Organizations helped to approve healthcare for certain age groups in the government, they helped open blood banks, and introduce anti-smoking campaigns. The American Heart Association announced an anti-smoking campaign on the 8th of June in 1963, and two years after that, New York City opened one of the first computerized blood banks at the New York Blood Center. A major health insurance company released a health plan to Americans that were older than sixty-five.
Malnutrition in developing countries was claimed to be just as bad as amongst the poor in America. Organizations were also made to help doctors, such as one called, the Medical Information Telephone System, a consultation service for doctors. Alongside cigarettes being seen as hazardous, artificial sweeteners such as cyclamates were reported to be linked to cancer and birth defects. Rather than being given a warning, cyclamates were banned by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Cloud Nine______________________________________________________________________________Climb in the back with your head in the clouds,And you’re gone.The Beatles, “Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds”______________________________________________________________________________ The use of narcotics was widespread in the 1960s and 1970s. A blooming society of hippies used marijuana and a Harvard professor, Timothy Leary, tried persuading people to use LSD. Polls used to ask adults questions about the use of these illegal drugs showed that adults did know how addictive drugs were.
Scare tactics were used to try and get young children and adults to stop using drugs, where the ‘scare’ was that drugs cause acne or blindness. Because most of these tactics were used on people who had already tried drugs, they knew the scare tactics were false, and began to stop believing in anti-drug movements altogether. “Scare tactics are a big disaster,” Gary De Blasio said an executive director of Corner House Counseling Center for Adolescents and Young Adults. As time passed, drugs became more ‘glorified’ during the 1970s. Drugs were the grandeur in society so much that the number of adults who said they had tried drugs doubled from 12% in 1977.
Americans began realizing how big of a problem the use of drugs is. In a Gallup poll in the year of 1978, 72% of American adults said they did not welcome the increased use of drugs. Within the same year, 83% of adults said it was important for young adults that do not have a future in college to know why using drugs are dangerous for one’s body.Law of Inertia The world was still going forward in science and the limits of what man can do were still being tested in the 1960’s and 1970’s.
A major event that took place was the Space Race, a race between Russia and America. Russia successfully managed to get the first man into space, Yuri Gagarin, in 1961, but America was the first country to successfully get the first man on the moon in 1969. A song called “Space Odyssey” by David Bowie was made in reference to man being in space. The song describes a man who successfully reaches space only to have his circuit fail. Astronomers continued to explore the galaxy in the 1960s, and discovered quasars, the light in a black hole. One space explorations was called the Voyager Program, which is when two spacecrafts, called Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 were released to explore the Milky Way Galaxy in 1977. Theories about space were also developed. An astrophysicist named Stephen Hawking proposed the theory of the existence of black holes, and his own theory on the Big Bang in the 1970’s.
Science moved forward in many other ways besides space, both on ground and in the sea, where many different kinds of life were found in areas of the ocean once deemed uninhabitable. The greenhouse effect, what we know today to be global warming, became more pronounced as humans continued to use the Earth as their trash can. A major advancement due to integrated circuits helped to innovate better computers and devices, including the calculator. This advancement in computers helped scientists to calculate more quickly. The method of gene-splicing, which is when one organism’s DNA is combined with another organism’s DNA, was invented in 1973. Science would continue to expand for many more years.Innovation______________________________________________________________________________They took the credit for your second symphonyRewritten by machine on new technology The Buggles, “Video Killed the Radio Star”______________________________________________________________________________ The world that people lived in changed massively as there were advances in technology, pharmaceuticals, and everyday household items.
A year before valium was invented in 1961, the halogen lamp was invented. This version of the halogen lamp was able to more easily fit into a lightbulb socket. Inventions with technology took place two years later in 1962 after the first audio cassette tape was made by Philips, through a team led by Lou Ottens. This first advancement in technology, called Space Wars, was more of a luxury than a major advancement because it was the first video game for a computer. Another invention that followed a year later in 1963 was also more close to a luxury, this invention was the videodisc. The video disc is a small disc that contained data from a video through use of tiny imprints in the disc. Alongside Space Wars, computers continued to advice, such as when Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC), the first computer language, was invented by John George Kemeny and Tom Kurtz in 1964. The year of 1964 had no other technological inventions, with the only two other inventions during that year being acrylic paint and permanent-press fabric, and the next two years held little to no technological advancements except for the compact disk invented in 1965 by James Russell.
The year of 1965, although only holding one technological invention, was the birth for many other inventions, such as Astroturf, often used in parks, softer contact lenses, and Kevlar, a material used to protect whoever wears it from a knife wound. The years of 1966 and 1967 held many new inventions in technology. In 1966, the first handheld calculator was created, and in the next year, there was a boom of computer-related inventions.
Some of these inventions consisted of the mouse and the first computer with integrated circuits. The 1970s were no different when it came to progression. Technology expanded immensely, within the first year of 1970, the floppy disk, which is used for storing information on a computer, was invented. In either year of 1970 and 1971, two kinds of printers called the daisy-wheel printer and the dot-matrix printer. Inventions would continue to flourish throughout the 1970’s. Technology-related inventions continued to grow, as well as luxury and household inventions.To Save the Earth The immense human expansion taking place in the 1960’s and 1970’s caused many animals to loose their habitats, water to turn black, air to become polluted with smog, and the Earth to be littered with trash. Authorities began pushing out laws and organizations began to host clean-ups in a desperate attempt to save the Earth.
Keep America Beautiful was a major organization that took part in the clean-up. Along with sending out public announcements and hosting cleanups, Keep America Beautiful also encouraged recycling and the re-planting trees and forests. Nearly 150,000,000 pounds of litter was collected due to this organization, and miles upon miles of the environment and neighbors were cleaned of trash. Over a million objects were collected to be recycled, such as batteries and aluminum. In 1960, a book called Silent Hill, published by Rachel Carson focused on the use of pesticides. As a result, President John F. Kennedy created a commission to research pesticides. The first law to protect the environment was passed in 1969, called the National Environmental Policy Act.
A year after the law was passed, the first Earth day was hosted, and within the same year of 1970, the Clean Air Act was passed by President Nixon. The Clean Air Act monitored gas emissions from automobiles and factories in order to get rid of smog in the air that caused respiratory problems. The laws to protect the Earth did not stop there. In the years of 1972 and 1973, the Clean Water Act was passed to make sure