The main issues pertaining to complexity on Segment are

The essential objective of this research is to interpret complextransportation projects and map the complexity of each dimension. The followingsections discuss the case studies that have been chosen for the project. Eachcase study begins with a background of the project from archival research andthen transitions into the questionnaire results. The discussion of the resultspresents the portions of the project that made the project complex and whythose factors required more, or different, management techniques. Eachdiscussion is arranged by dimension for clarity. During the discussion of thequestionnaire, a radar diagram is presented for each project that maps thenumerical data for each dimension as it is scored by the project participant.The next chapter will analyse the aggregate findings of all case studies,looking for similarities and differences between the projects, as well as howthe overall findings of the research may be used by industry professionals.

 5.1 Highway Segment  BackgroundThe project is a new asphalt four lane (six insome places) highway construction project owned and operated HighwayAuthority). Segment as a whole has four segments, the fourth of which is usedfor this study. The total project length is approximately 47 miles. The totalcost of Segment is $250 million, however this figure does not includeacquisition and initial planning costs performed by the owner. The road wasbuilt as a toll way, which is one of the methods used to finance the project.Bonds, vehicle registration fees, investment income, highway expansion fees,and new development fees were also used to fund all segments of the projectbringing the total cost to $1.

2 billion.One of the major components of this project wasthe implementation of ITS. Fiber optics run the entire length of the projectwhich are used for toll collection and camera enforcement. Currently, there isno option for paying tolls using cash.

Cameras take pictures of the vehicle ifthey do not have a tag and mail the payment to the vehicle owner. This is thefirst toll way to use this type of high-speed electronic toll collection. Someof the main issues pertaining to complexity on Segment are environmentalimpacts which created potential lawsuits, growth inducement from theresidential and commercial sectors, political and public concerns, expansivesoils, and private land ownership. Projects along highway continue to this day,but for the sake of this research only Segment has been studied and analysed asfar as the sources contributing to the complexity of the project.  5.

1.1 Cost Dimension A majority of the cost categories were found tobe slightly more complex compared to other projects that the participant hasworked on in their career. A little more complex for the risk, preliminaryprogram, and planning/construction categories. Some of the issues leading tocost complexity are that there was a lot of risk in the initial stagesconcerning the feasibility of the toll revenues and of the project as a whole.

Once the project contract was signed, a lot of the risk was transferred andtherefore alleviated in the later stages of the project. The cost estimationphase was a difficult process because the estimates were being performed withlittle design work completed. The other factor that increased the complexity ofthe cost dimension was that there were more incentive and disincentive clausesused because of the DB (Design – Build) contracting method. The design-buildercould share in the revenues, but the contract was also heavy in liquidateddamages. According to the participant, the issues category was less complex forthis project. There were not a lot of material or transit user cost issues.