The Bauhaus was the first model of a modern art school in Germany also considered the most influential art school of the 20th century. It was created just after the war in 1919 by Walter Gropius, a German American architect. Germany’s failure in ww1 lead to political reforms, the German monarchy fell and the abolition of the censorship under the new, liberal Republic allowed an upsurge of radical experimentation in all the arts, previously suppressed by the old regime.
This is what ultimately lead to the creation of the Bauhaus. As a designer Walter Gropius aimed to bridge the gap between art and industry by combining crafts and fine arts by bringing artists and craftsmen together. “The Bauhaus fights imitation, inferior craftsmanship and artistic dilettantism.
“This is a quote from Walter Gropius id referring to the combination of artists and craftsmen working together stating it is superior to the previous methods of design. The Bauhaus lead to experimental art becoming widely accepted, fine arts where no longer held in higher esteem than craftsmanship thanks to Gropius and his fellow artists. Although Gropius went about things differently The Bauhaus ideas grew from inspiration of previous 19th and 20th century art movements. This inspiration combined with this own ides and other artists involved meant the Bauhaus could redefine 20th century design.The Bauhaus drew inspiration from the ideals of the revolutionary art movements and design experiments of the early 20th century.
The arts and crafts movement started from an idea of reviving creativity and fine craft during the Victorian period to prevent industrialisation from affecting traditional design methods. Pioneered by John Ruskin and William Morris this movement removed the barriers between workmen, designers and artists the Bauhaus aims were very similar in a way, the soullessness of manufacturing products meant that art could lose its place in society. Modernism was another influence, originating from the United States in the early 20th century, it is an art movement that deliberately challenged traditional art styles of the time using new and interesting materials. Modernism gave artists a chance to create something more expressive in their own styles, it gave them options instead of sticking to the norm of oil paintings and portraits. Constructivism was Russia’s most influential art movement of the 20th century. The constructivists believed that that there should be a direct link between art and modern industry.
Constructivism called for people to re evaluate how materials are used and the properties they have as well as how they can be used together. The form artwork would now be directed by the materials used as a pose to the materials being chosen in accord to a piece of artwork. Constructivism acted as a beacon for russian artists to express their ideas in new ways with the belief that art should directly reflect the modern industrial world. All three of these movements had a large influence in the Bauhaus and without them things could possibly have turned out very differently.
Without this inspiration Gropius may have never founded the Bauhaus school.