The Identification of most preferred information sources and channels

Thepresent study was undertaken to critically analyse the Information ManagementBehaviour of Dairy farmers in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu. The data wascollected from five villages of Mangalur block comprising of 60 respondentsthrough structured interview schedule. Familymembers and progressive farmers were the most preferred personal localitesources of dairy information on improved farm practices.

Veterinarians were themajor personal cosmopolite source of information. Dairy farmers discuss theirideas with family members to evaluate the information and try to memories itfor further use in transfer of technologies in their farm situation. Television,radio and newspaper were the most preferred impersonal cosmopolite sources.

Efforts should be made to educate thefarmers to participate in training, field days, field trip, exhibition forincreasing awareness and knowledge and better understanding of technologies.Keywords: Personal cosmopolite, Localite, Dairy farmers, CuddaloreINTRODUCTIONIn, IndiaDairying is very important in improving the socio-economic status of the ruralpoor by reducing the long lasting problems of unemployment and underemployment.It provides nutrition, draft animal power, organic manure, supplementary employmentand cash income (Patel, 1993). The enlarged demand for milk and milk productswill surely have implications for livestock production systems and forlivestock producers in poor rural areas who are trying to adapt changing socialeconomical market and trade circumstances (Rao et al. 2005)            Adoption of improvedfarm practices by the dairy farmers varies, depending upon their situation andavailability of information sources. Identification of most preferredinformation sources and channels by the dairy farmers will be helpful forextension agencies and persons engaged in transfer of technology programmes,thus selection of appropriate information sources is very important foreffective and rapid transfer of technologies (Sharma et al. 2008).

The choice and use of different sources and channelsof dairy information depends on the credibility of the information channel.Therefore keeping in view of the above situation, an effort was made to knowmore about the Information Management Behaviour of Dairy farmers in Cuddaloredistrict.METHODOLOGY            Thestudy was conducted in Mangalore block of Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu. Thedata were collected randomly from 60 farmers of five villages in Mangalore blockby using structured interview schedule. Inthis study information management behavior were studied under three different categories,viz.

, Information input pattern, Information processing pattern and Informationoutput pattern. The responses ofthe respondents were obtained through three point continuum i.e. frequently,occasionally and never with the score 3, 2 and 1 were respectively. Data wereanalysed and ranked with the help of Total score, MeanPercent Score and Weight Mean Score.RESULT AND DISCUSSIONThesources and channels available to dairy farmers for seeking information onimproved dairy practices were studied in 3 categories and presented in Table 1.I.InformationInput Pattern           Informationinput pattern were studied under two categories, viz.

, frequency of contact andusefulness of sources and presented below.A.Frequency of contact of information sources            Inpersonal cosmopolite sources, Veterinarians (MPS 86.11 & WMS 2.58) were themost frequently contacted by the respondents followed by Para veterinarians(MPS 77.22 & WMS 2.

32), Dairy co-operatives (MPS 68.89 & WMS 2.07) andPrivate dairies (MPS 48.33 & WMS 1.45). The University scientists (MPS33.

33 & WMS 1.00) were the least preferred cosmopolite information sources.Veterinarians being accessible to the farmers might have been contactedregularly to seek information on improved practices in dairy. Similar findingswere reported by Nande et al.(2009).            Amongpersonal localite sources, family members (MPS 95.

00 & WMS 2.85),progressive farmers (MPS-78.33 & WMS 2.35), friends (MPS 76.

67 & WMS2.30), neighbors (MPS 72.22 & WMS 2.

17) and relatives (MPS 71.67 & WMS2.15) were most preferred sources of dairy formers for seeking information.Local leaders (MPS 48.89 & WMS 1.47) were least preferred informationsources. Similar findings were reported by Nande et al.

(2009) and Chauhan and Kansal (2014).  Television (MPS 69.44 & WMS 2.08) was the mostpreferred impersonal cosmopolite sources of dairy information as perceived bythe respondents. These findings got support from those by Garai et al. (2012) and Chauhan and Kansal (2014).

 Newspaper (MPS 35.56 &WMS 1.07), Internet (MPS 33.33 & WMS 1.00), books (MPS 33.33 & WMS 1.

00)and journals (MPS 33.33 & WMS 1.00) were utilized by only few respondentsin information seeking.Table1.Sources and channels of dairy information utilized by farmers for informationseeking on improved dairy farm practices (N=60) Sl. No Sources Frequency of contact Usefulness of contact TS MPS WMS Rank TS MPS WMS Rank I Personal cosmopolite sources 1 Veterinarians 155 86.

11 2.58 1 165 91.67 2.75 1 2 Para veterinarians 139 77.22 2.32 2 134 74.44 2.

23 2 3 Private dairies 87 48.33 1.45 4 85 47.22 1.42 4 4 Dairy co-operatives 124 68.89 2.07 3 124 68.89 2.

07 3 5 University scientists 60 33.33 1.00 5 60 33.33 1.00 5 II Personal localite sources 1 Family members 171 95.00 2.85 1 163 90.

56 2.72 1 2 Friends 138 76.67 2.30 3 134 74.

44 2.23 2 3 Neighbours 130 72.22 2.17 4 120 66.

67 2.00 5 4 Relatives 129 71.67 2.15 5 124 68.89 2.

07 4 5 Progressive farmers 141 78.33 2.35 2 130 72.22 2.

17 3 6 Local  leaders 88 48.89 1.47 6 91 50.56 1.52 6 III Impersonal cosmopolite sources 1 Television 125 69.

44 2.08 1 119 66.11 1.98 1 2 Radio 73 40.56 1.22 2 70 38.89 1.17 2 3 Newspaper 64 35.

56 1.07 3 65 36.11 1.08 3 4 Internet 60 33.33 1.

00 4 60 33.33 1.00 4 5 Books 60 33.33 1.00 5 60 33.33 1.

00 5 6 Journals 60 33.33 1.00 6 60 33.

33 1.00 6  B. Usefulness ofinformation sourcesVeterinarians(MPS 91.

67 & WMS 2.75) were the most usefulpersonal cosmopolite sources forthe farmers. Para veterinarians (MPS 74.44 & WMS 2.23), dairy co-operatives(MPS 68.89 & WMS 2.07) and private dairies (MPS 47.22 & WMS 1.

42) wereaccorded second, third and fourth rank respectively.  The University scientists (MPS 33.33 &WMS 1.00) were the least useful cosmopolite information sources in the study area.Among personal localite sources, family members (MPS 90.56 & WMS 2.

72) weremost useful sources as perceived by the farmers followed by progressive farmers(MPS-72.22 & WMS 2.17), friends (MPS-74.

44 & WMS 2.23), neighbors (MPS66.67 & WMS 2.00), relatives (MPS 68.89 & WMS 2.07) and local leaders (MPS50.

56 & WMS 1.52). During the investigation it was observed that farmersdiscussed within the family members to solve their problems related to dairyfarming. Television(MPS 66.11 & WMS 1.

98) and radio (MPS 38.89 & WMS 1.17) were the mostpreferred impersonal cosmopolite channels of dairy information as perceived bythe respondents. Newspaper (MPS 36.11& WMS 1.08), internet (MPS 33.33 &WMS 1.00), books (MPS 33.

33 & WMS 1.00) and journals (MPS 33.33 & WMS 1.00)were utilized by only few respondents in information seeking.

It was suggestedthat the extension workers in the area should arrange media forum groups (radioand television) to discuss the contents of radio/television agricultural programwhich would enable effective transfer of new technologies.II. InformationProcessing Pattern Information processingpattern were studied under two categories, viz.,Evaluation of information andpreservation of information and presented below.A.

Evaluationitems            Majorityof them evaluated the received information through discussing with familymembers (MPS 93.89 & WMS 2.82), referring their past experiences (MPS 88.33& WMS 2.65) and discussing with progressive farmers (MPS 81.

67 & WMS 2.45).Similar findings were reported by Garai et al.(2012) and Manhas et al. (2013).

Accepted informationas such and discussing with university scientists were least methods used bythe dairy farmers (Table 2).    Table2. Evaluation items utilized by farmers for seeking information on improveddairy farm practices (N=60) Sl.

No Evaluation items TS MPS WMS Rank 1 Discussing with family members 169 93.89 2.82 1 2 Discussing with Progressive farmers 147 81.67 2.45 3 3 Discussing with neighbours and friends 146 81.11 2.

43 4 4 Discussing with staff of the animal husbandry department like AD/VAS 123 68.33 2.05 6 5 Discussing with scientist of the university 60 33.33 1.00 9 6 Referring the past experience 159 88.

33 2.65 2 7 Considering  economic profitability 128 71.11 2.13 5 8 Considering simplicity-complexity in use 116 64.44 1.93 7 9 Accepted as such 68 37.78 1.

13 8 B.Methods of preservation       Table 3 indicated that most of the dairyfarmers preferred to preserve the information in memory alone(MPS 94.44 & WMS 2.83). Findingswere in line with those reported by       Garai et al. (2012) andMeena et al. (2017). None of them preserve theinformation in CD or pen drive or personal computers.

Farm literatures, writingin notebook or preserve the newspaper cutting were least preferred as they wereilliterates.Table3.  Methods of preservation by farmers forseeking information on improved dairy farm practices (N=60) Sl.

No Methods of preservation TS MPS WMS Rank 1 Memorising it 170 94.44 2.83 1 2 Telling family members to remember 159 88.33 2.

65 2 3 Preserve the newspaper cutting 67 37.22 1.12 4 4 Preserve the printed materials like leaflets, folders, bulletins etc.

, 75 41.67 1.25 3 5 Taking down in a notebook 66 36.

67 1.10 5 6 Preserve the information in CD/Pen drive/Personal computers 60 33.33 1.00 6  III.

Information Output Pattern         The information outputpattern were analysed and presented (Table 4). Disseminating information with familymembers and relatives (MPS 91.67 & WMS 2.75) and next to those who come andask them (MPS 76.67 & WMS 2.

30) were the most preferred way in transfer oftechnologies. Similar results were also reported by Garai et al. (2012), Manhas et al.(2013) and Meena et al.(2017).Table4. Methods ofdissemination by farmers for seeking information on improved dairy farmpractices (N=60) Sl.No Methods of dissemination TS MPS WMS Rank 1 Family members and relatives  165 91.

67 2.75 1 2 Those who come and ask 138 76.67 2.30 2 3 Neighbours and friends 133 73.89 2.

22 3 4 All the dairy farmers 106 58.89 1.77 4  CONCLUSIONAND RECOMMENDATION ·        Family members andprogressive farmers were the most preferred personal localite sources of dairyinformation on improved farm practices.

To enhance the effectiveness ofprogressive farmers in transfer of technologies, there is a need to equip themwith technically accurate information through training and other educationalprogrammes and the field workers should use them to maximum possible extent.·        Veterinarians were themajor personal cosmopolite source. It was suggested that the authorities shouldconsider filling of existing vacant post of veterinarians for the well-being offarmers in the area. It is recommended to establish a well-equipped dairyinformation centre.

This centre should be well equipped with radio, television,farm newspaper and literatures in order to provide necessary information tofarmers in the area.·        Dairy farmers discusstheir ideas with family members to evaluate the information and try to memoriesit for further use in transfer of technologies in their farm situation.·        Television, radio andnewspaper were the most preferred impersonal cosmopolite sources as perceivedby the respondents. So it is suggested to arrange media forum groups to discussthe contents of radio/television agricultural programmes which would enableeffective transfer of new technologies.