Thehuman kind has two different type of sex as man and woman. When children areborn, their parents arrange everything depend on their sexes. Therefore, methodsof child care differ from girl babies to boy babies. Parents could not risechildren by ignoring their sex differences. Since children also differ from each other due totheir bio-psycho-social differences.
Biological differences between men andwomen cause to differentiations in their growth patters. During the sixth andtwelfth week of pregnancy, children develop their sex organs as a male orfemale due to absence or presence of testosterone (Swaab, 2014). After that their brains modulate itself throughoutfemale and male lines, during the second of pregnancy. Therefore, the genderidentity of a child is determined in the womb. (Swaab, 2014) Furthermore, testosteroneproduce aggression therefore men are more aggressive and have more inclinationto show antisocial behaviors than women however, girls with Congenital AdrenalHyperphoria (male-type hormone) tend to show aggressive behaviors like boys(Boyse, 2011; Swaab, 2014). In addition to than testosterone alsoaffect children on choosing toys. Boys prefer to play with soldiers and cars,but girls tend to play with dolls (Swaab, 2014).
Alexander and Hines (2002), put forward ideaabout sex differences on choosing toys by conducted research on primates. Theresults showed that female monkeys preferred to play with dolls instead of carsand balls due to its motherly behaviors. However male monkey preferred to playwith balls and cars. Hence, the results of experiment support the evolutionaryperspective about sex differences (Swaab, 2014). Another sex-related difference observed inthe neurochemistry of men and women. Researches showed that transmitting,regulating and processing biomolecules are displayed in different patterns bymale and female (Hines, 2010).
For instance, monoamines are kind of aneurotransmitters included dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine, that areclosely related with controlling stress response, sexual behaviors andrespiration systems (Ngun, 2011). These neurotransmitters are exhibitdifferentiation depend on sexes. Serotoninergic system also displays differentpatterns due to sex differences (Hines, 2010).
Many behavioralscientists were believing that the child is born with a tabula rasa and socialinfluences determine their gender as male or female (Swaab, 2014). However, the case study is known a John-Joanand John showed that social influences are not the certain ways to determine aperson’ s gender. John was a little boy who lost his penis at the age of eight months(Swaab, 2014). Therefore, his parentdecided to turn him to Joan (a girl). His parent dressed him in girls’ clothesand received psychotherapy from John Money who was sexologist (Swaab, 2014).
Joan(John) was taking estrogen during the teenage (Swaab, 2014). Money announcedthe case study as great success (Swaab, 2014). The child has developed as a normal female however,the child knew that he had sex change and then he decided to be man again, hegot married and adopted a child with his wife (Swaab, 2014). Sadly, he sufferedbecause of stressful times in his life. He divorced with his wife and hecommitted suicide in 2004. This sad story shows how strongly hormones,especially testosterone play role in people sexual identity (Swaab, 2014).
Social differencesbetween men and women produce differentiations in their growth patters. Thechief aim of family is providing prepared social identity for its members.Children are born into determined social class, religion, race and so on.(Sociological perspective on the family). For example, Women in Saudi Arabiacould not go travel, take education and work without get a permission from malerelatives, a father or husband because of their cultures and religions (Hamdan,2005). In addition to that, Saudi Arabia has an educational system based on sexdifference.
Boys are educated by minister of education (Hamdan, 2005). However,girls are educated by the general presidency for girls’ education which hasbeen heavily influenced by religion and the main of the institution is educategirls to be good views women, mothers and training them to have ‘acceptable’jobs (Hamdan, 2005).According to socialstructured theory put forward the sex-oriented social roles producepsychological differences between men and women (Denisiuk, 2004). Thedifferences between genders are based on social environments (Denisiuk, 2004).
Each sex face different situation based on thevariety of historical, cultural and social period as well as differentiationsin technology, ecology and communities (Denisiuk, 2004). In many societies, when a woman becamepregnant, people around her try to learn what is the sex of baby. Because theywill buy a gift depend on sex, dolls for girls soldiers for boys or pink forgirls and blues for boys. Therefore, children are forced to have a genderdepend on their sexes (Swaab, 2014).
In addition to that, Bandura’s Social LearningTheory showed that children learn through observing their parent behaviors andattitudes and that include sex differences (Mclead, 2016). Boys tend to takemen as a model because they recognized they have same-sex with them. Likewise,girls have inclination to take women as a model because of the sex similarities(Mclead, 2016). Social learning theory gives an explanation about humanbehavior from the point of reciprocal interaction between environmental,cognition and behavioral effects (Mclead, 2016).Psychological differencesalso cause differences in child-rearing methods. Personality makes someone whothey are and effects the ways people tend to behave, feel and think (Pappas,2017). The broadly accepted personality traits model is the five-factor model andknown as the big five. These personality traits are openness,conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism (Pappas, 2017).
Eachperson behaves toward other people depend on these personality traits. Forexample, a child who has an extraversion personality trait is more energic,sociable and cheerful than a child with introversion personal trait (Pappas,2017).According topsychodynamic perspective, children complete their personality during the earlychildhood period (Wood, 2005) Their personalities consist of id (aggressive andpleasure driver), superego (moral control) and ego (the balance between id andego). All the early childhood experiences effect children personality (Wood,2005), Therefore, parents should be careful during this period. In addition tothat in this critical period, boys face to oedipal complex and girls face to electracomplex (Wood, 2005) Children should overcome this stressful period with theirparents helps to build a strong personality (Wood, 2005).Girls generally startpuberty almost one year earlier than boys (Swaab, 2014). During theadolescences, youngsters have no totally matured brain.
Especially, theirpre-frontal cortex which is closely related with problem solving, analyticthinking and so on, is still developing during this period (Swaab, 2014). Theycan make many mistakes because of their immature brain. Therefore, parentsshould help them to make a right decision (Swaab, 2014). Furthermore, boys showmore aggressive behaviors than girls because of the high level of testosterone.Parents should be supportive to their children during this critical periodbecause adolescence has indisputable impact on children’s psychologicaldevelopment (Swaab, 2014).