The failed hard tissues such as hip joints, knee

Theinner framework of the human body is the skeletal system which comprised manybones of the different role of the physical structure. The bone is subject to deterioration due to human bodilyprocesses, injury and disease. Another major disease that is faced by the agedand sometimes the young people is arthritis, it courses impairment to the lifeof those affected and it could lead to unbearable pain and immobility. Apartfrom people that are affected by disease, agile and young people like sportsmen and women often need replacements due to fracture and excessive strain.

 Researchers in biomedical Engineering face aconsiderable undertaking in their effort to see a solution to the replenishmentof damaged tissues caused by these life-threatening diseases. Thecomplex problems faced in bioimplants has been their contact with thebiological environment of various physico-chemical nature and interaction withtissue and bone(Manivasagam etal., 2010). Acceptability by the human bodywithout immunological rejection in the body and a good response with tissuecells is an important requirement for choice of biomaterial. The materialsshould have mechanical properties like tensile strength, hadness and lowmodulus of elasticity corrosion resistance and elongation wear resistance (Manjaiah and Laubscher, 2017).  Inthis respect, the need for collaboration between specialists likemechanical engineers, material scientists, metallurgists, orthopaedists, and soforth, with track records of experience is of paramount to achieve worthyresults in research, development and execution of the extracted knowledge intopractice. However, developments in the field of biomedical Engineering have ledto continuous renewed interest in biomaterial requirement to resolve theproblems of failed hard tissues such as hip joints, knee joints, dental implants,etc.

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, by using metallic biomaterials like, Cobalt based alloys, stainlesssteel, titanium alloys, TiNi shape memory alloys which are known to be mainmetallic materials as suitable replacement for hard tissues(Geetha et al.,2009; Niinomi, 2003). In recent years,there has been an increasing interest in titanium and titanium alloys amongmetallic biomaterials because of their properties of low elastic modulus, corrosionresistance, wear resistance, high specific strength and good biocompatibility (Niinomi, 2002; Temenoff and Mikos, 2008) which makes them suitablemetals for biomedical applications. Meanwhile,