The Supreme Court of the United Statesis the highest judicial instance. The highest federal court in the United States that has a dominating positionamong all U.
S.courts. In 1789 it was established in accordance with Article Three of theUnited States Constitution. The Supreme Court has ultimate appellatejurisdiction over all federal courts and state court cases concerning issues offederal law, and original jurisdiction over a small range of cases. It mostlyreviews the decisions of lower courts serving as the main arbiter of disputes,but also, it may decide cases having a political subtext.
The most decisivepower of the Supreme Court is judicial review, the ability to check theconstitutionality of actions undertaken by the other branches of Americangovernment, on the federal and state level. TheSupreme Court consist of nine Justices, where one is a Chief Justice, and othereight are Associate Justices. All Justices are nominated by the President andconfirmed by the Senate.
After beingappointed, Justices have a lifelong term. Justice can resign or retire, but ifsomeone needs to remove a Justice from the Supreme Court it could be done onlyin a constitutional way through the sentencing verdict reached after theimpeachment process.TheAmerican courts and judges have a special position among other branches ofgovernment. This position has acquired due to decisions in various legal cases,most of which relate to the foundation of U.S.
constitutional law. Despitethe fact that the President is the Chief Executive appointed with broad powers,and Congress is the main law-making body, the United States Supreme Court formsthe meaning of the main constitutional rules and norms. First of all theConstitution was created to make a balanced system, where all branches ofpower: the judiciary, the legislature, and the executive would equally takepart in the process of governing the country. However, during centuries therewere many changes that altered the balances and system the separation of powersdoctrine, hindering conception of the Constitution as a document that ensuresequality to the American governmental system.
Mainly due to the role of the Supreme Court in shaping the scope ofcontemporary legal, economic and social relations in the United States these changes haveoccurred.