The can be both considered as high-involvement products: the

The sample in this study was selected
within Hochiminh City. Although findings of this study could be contribute to
marketing research in national level by comparing how consumers in HCMC behave
differently compared with other groups, such implications will not be

The dependent variable – brand loyalty
– is multidimensional which means it is constructed from various components,
such as satisfaction, trust, reliability. This study only emphasizes on the
relationship between sales promotions and brand loyalty; therefore, those components
will not be investigated in depth.

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The two products categories chosen in
this study are restricted to two products which are seen as basic products,
affordable and easily bought.


The purpose of this study is to
explore the relationship between non-price and price promotions with brand
loyalty; however, it must be noted that this study will not involve long-term
sales promotions such as loyalty programs (membership). These types can be
either price or non-price promotions; hence, they need to be investigated




Besides types of promotions, the
impact of product involvement on consumer will also be investigated. The level
of personal relevance of the product to consumers is considered as product
involvement. In other words, involvement is the result of the interaction of
consumers with products. 1

For example, a car or a bottle of
perfume can be both considered as high-involvement products: the car is
associated with high perceived financial risk, while perfume is perceived high
social risk”. Product categories chosen for the study are assumed to show
different degrees of involvement.


Regarding the methodology, it is
assumed that involvement, and utilitarian/hedonic benefits are reliable
variables to measure their effect on brand loyalty. It also assumes that all
interviewees frankly answer the survey questions; the statistical software and
analysis methods applied were appropriate.