The pinhole camera also known as a camera obscura was first visualized around the 5th century BC. The camera obscura was a box with a small hole in it, through which light would enter and reflect on a mirror. This was the first time an image was projected onto a screen for viewing. Though image formed was not a permanent image. After several experiments and continous research.
The first partially successful photograph of a camera image was made in approximately 1816 by using a very small camera and a piece of paper coated with silver chloride,which acts as the screen and is darkened where it was exposed to light.In 1837 the first permanent image was captured, which was named the daguerreotype. It is a process where a silver-plated sheet of copper with iodine vapor coating of light-sensitive silver iodide was exposed in the camera, the image was developed by mercury vapor and fixed with a strong solution of ordinary salt . Degerotypes laid the foundation in the evolution of photography** The use of photographic film was Instigated by George Eastman, who started manufacturing paper film in 1885. His first camera,Kodak was first launched for sale in 1888. It was a very simple box with a fixed-focus lens and single shutter,it was designed in such a way that everyone could use and afford it . The Kodak came pre-loaded with a film once the roll was completely exposed it had to be sent back to the factory for processing and reloading” You press the button , We do the rest ” By 1900 there were a lot of technological advancements in the way images were captured Almost every photographer had a Single lens reflex camera which had a dry plate and fast mechanical shutter.
Image could be captured with a single click .There were medium format and 35mm format cameras.Camaers that use 35mm stilll format was sold as a long strip of emulsion-coated and perforated plastic spooled in a light-tight roll .When all exposures have been made the strip is rewound into the roll. Medium format cameras use 120 film, which yields a strip of negatives 60 mm wide. There were different types of films which were used to capture the images Black and white Negative film,colour negative film,transparency film.A negative is the image in photography, it is sheet of transparent film,made of silver halides where the light areas of the photographed subject appear dark and the dark areas appear light.
When these negatives are processed in photosensitive chemicals the actual tones in the image appear In the case of color negatives, the colors are reversed into their respective complementary colors. Color positive film or transparency film use E-6 chemicals for processing, and we get a positive image from it when developed.Different types of films were used like daylight film and tungsten film.Depending on the light source and colour temperature suitable film was used . There were different types of films with different film speeds.
different film speeds were used to generate effects in different light conditions.Film speed describes a film’s threshold sensitivity to light. The international standard for rating film speed is the ISO scaleCommon film speeds include ISO 100, 160, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, and 6400ISO 100 film is slow, as it requires much more exposure to produce a usable image than fast ISO 800 filmISO 800 films and greater are thus better suited to low-light situations and action shots .During the analogue era there was a lot of physics involved in capturing the photographs and a lot of chemistry knowledge was required to generate the captured image The material basics of chemical photograph , the photographic emulsion , is a granular structure of silver halides dissolved in gelatin and spread on a plastic or acetate base .
this emulsion holds the nearest thing there is to a photographic mark – the tiny light sensitive grain of silver, the constituent bits out of which an image is configured . Different types films had to be processed using a different methods black and white negative processing C41 **Colour negative processing,transparency processing/chrome film E6 processing **The chemicals used in transparency developing are First developer : Reversal bath :Colour Developer Bleach Pre bleach FixerFinal rinse To maximise tonality and highlight compression in long scale subjects highly dilute developers were used concentrated developers were used to enhance the sharpness but it gives more grain than usualThe processed film was still not viewable with proper colours . it had to be printed on a paper The Print : blending the techniques of both physics and chemistry a print is generated.The process starts by scanning the developed film In Colour negative films red, green and blue channels were scanned separately For a Transperancy cyan , yellow , megenta and black channels were scanned saparately **There are two kinds of papers on which the image is printed matte finish paper and a glossy finish paper A matte finish indicates more absorbent paper, consisting of paper particles, air and an ink-receptive coating. Glossy papers are far more complex with any number of chemicals added to create the reflective surface. Matte papers may be more stable over time, but glossy papers provide higher contrast and color saturation. It is not only the kind of paper that determines the images but also other factors like thickness,opacity, brightness,nature of the paper , Temperature of the emulsion , toners and so on .
during the analogue era prints were made using an enlarger **