The anticipated the criticism on the proposed constitution from

The Federalist papers first appeared
in the Independent Journal of New York City press on the proposed new
constitution under the pseudonym “Publius” meaning of the Public, chosen by
Alexander Hamilton, the pioneer of the project, and later recruited
collaborators John Jay and James Madison. Jointly they wrote 85 articles and
essays to promote the ratification of the constitution to the newspapers in the
year between October 1787 and August 1788. Because of the limited availability
of space in the newspapers, the articles were short, but all of them were in
purely political on the subject. Their original purpose was to mobilize the
public opinion to defend the new constitution, which would keep the Union and the
government in peace and security of its citizens proposed by the federal
convention happened in the late May to mid-September, 1787 in Philadelphia.
After the long and often rancorous debate in that convention, they had agreed
to set up the new governmental infrastructure in the country. However, any
amendment to the articles required the consent from all thirteen states
legislatures. So, they ordered for the consent from the states for the
ratification or rejection of the new constitution. Representatives from 12
states signed the completed constitution on September 17, 1787. Nevertheless,
rather than abide by these rules, the convention thus proposed that the
constitution would be adopted when approved by elected conventions in 9 states.

In Federalist 1, Alexander
Hamilton begins his essay with a bold opening statement by stating “People of
the State of New York” by urging his readers to consider the adaptation of an
entirely new constitution after they experienced the inefficacy of the present
form of federal government. He also anticipated the criticism on the proposed
constitution from the certain dissidents who were congenitally opposed to any
change, those who feared that might cost their jobs. However, Hamilton believed
in the future greatness of United States and sees the America as a world power.
This might not seem odd to the modern readers, but back in the days, America
was vulnerable to foreign dominations.

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In Federalist 9, Hamilton
explains a firm union combined with individual republics will be used to
counteract the danger of factious outbreaks within its individual members by
using their common resources as a barrier. He also specified that the recurrent
use of military is necessary to keep the rebellions in their place. Hamilton
was a great supporter of the French political philosopher Montesquieu that he
chose to quote “The Science of Politics, however, like most other sciences,
have received great improvement…not known at all, or imperfectly known to the

Federalist 10, this was the
first contribution of James Madison to the series where he defined the term
“faction” or political party. In his perspective, a faction was a group of
citizens who gather together by some common impulse of similar interests,
adverse to the rights of other citizens and promote their economic interests
and political opinions. James Madison was also one of the Federalists who
believed in the one-party system. In Federalist 15, Hamilton stressed the defects
of American confederation arose because there was no general superintendence
and he argued that such superintendence should be extended beyond the state
governments to its citizens- the genuine objects of the government. At the
beginning he does not attack the Articles of Confederation particularly but
instead, he stated that the principle of legislation for states which creates
multiple jurisdictions in the existing government is the biggest problem. Both
Hamilton and Madison believed that local jurisdictions had to be abolished,
something which they were much open about in their private correlation than in
their public statements.

From Federalist 16-20, both
Hamilton and Madison overelaborate their contention that the principle of the Confederacy
was the “parent of anarchy” and at the same time, it acted as the fertile soil
for civil and foreign wars. In Federalist 15, 16 and 17, Hamilton developed the
theme that no national government could sustain unless it had jurisdiction over
the individuals in the states rather than the individuals over the states in
their corporate capacities. In Federalist 18, 19 and 20, Madison enforced
Hamilton’s agreements by making an appeal to the history of the Swiss
Confederation, the Holy Roman Empire, United Netherlands, Amphictyonic Council
and its successor, the Achaean League. Madison on writing these three essays he
only had to turn to his research memorandum entitled, “Notes of Ancient and
Modern Confederacies.”