TECHNOLOGICAL Spice IV with Examples LABORATORY NO. 2 Submitted

 

TECHNOLOGICAL
INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES

938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City

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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE

ELECTRONICS
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

 

 

2ND SEMESTER
AY 2017-2018

MIDTERM

 

Basic Power
Electronics

ECE 112

EC42FB1

 

Introduction
to LT Spice IV with Examples

LABORATORY NO. 2

 

 

 

Submitted
to:

Engr. Reginald Phelps T. Laguna

 

Submitted
on:

January 10, 2018

 

Submitted
by:

Acuña, Jonalyn A.

Canaya, Regina Marie V.

De Leon, Dean Rowel T.

Diaz, Renzo C.

Ingat, Alyssa A.

Introduction to LT Spice IV
with Examples

Laboratory
No. 2

Abstract— LTSpice is an adaptable,
precise and an open circuit simulator available for Windows and Mac. In this
document, we’ll provide a synopsis of DC and AC simulation, as well as how to
analyze output signals helping the students to understand the working
principles of the LT Spice IV. The basic spice directives were simulated by
applying to different circuits such as DC sweep (Linear Regulator), AC analysis
(Second-Order Bandpass Filter), Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier),
Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering), and Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge
Rectifier.)

                                                                                                                                                             
I.      
Introduction

      Electronic circuit
simulation uses mathematical models to replicate the behavior of an actual
electronic device or circuit. Simulation software allows for modeling of
circuit operation and is an invaluable analysis tool. Due to its highly
accurate modeling capability, many colleges and universities use this type of
software for the teaching of electronics technician and electronics engineering
programs. Electronics simulation software engages the user by integrating them
into the learning experience. These kinds of interactions actively engage
learners to analyze, synthesize, organize, and evaluate content and result in
learners constructing their own knowledge.1

          Simulating a circuit’s behavior before
actually building it can greatly improve design efficiency by making faulty
designs known as such, and providing insight into the behavior of electronics
circuit designs. In particular, for integrated circuits, the tooling
(photomasks) is expensive, breadboards are impractical, and probing the
behavior of internal signals is extremely difficult. Therefore, almost all IC
design relies heavily on simulation. The most well-known analog simulator is
SPICE.2

      LT spice is a
high-performance SPICE simulator, schematic capture and waveform viewer with
enhancements and models for easing the simulation of switching regulators.  The developments to SPICE have made
simulating switching regulators exceptionally fast compared to normal
simulators, allowing the user to view waveforms for most switching regulators
in just a few minutes.

  

Fig. 1.   
LT Spice logo

Fig. 2.   
Initial Window after Opening LT Spice

      Spice is a very useful
tool, which can give some insight into the response of your circuits design. If
the user is a beginner, it is useful as a learning tool and helps cement some
of the theory by visualizing the response of the circuit before you actually
build it.

      Its strength comes to
designing more complex circuits and/or you may have input waveforms from
another system. Furthermore, it’s quite easy to learn and configure a circuit
to test and LT spice then allows you to probe various points to examine the
waveforms.3

Fig. 3.   
Circuit Building Toolbar

      Figure 3 shows the
toolbar where the components used for creating a circuit is found. The common
components that were intuitive were resistor, capacitor, inductor, capacitor,
ground, and diode which can be accessed by hotkeys.

                                                                                                                                                                
II.      
Objectives

This activity aims to present the basic
working principles of LT Spice. Furthermore, this activity has the following
specific objectives:

·        
Examine the toolbars and working space of
the LT Spice

·        
Analyzing the Spice directives and
shortcuts

·        
Choosing specific components by using
specific model.

                                                                                                                                                          
III.      
Simulations

The students used LT spice for simulation.
It is a freeware computer software that implements a SPICE simulator of
electronic circuits. It is produced by semiconductor manufacturer Linear
Technology (LTC).4  

      LTspice
has the following benefits: 6

·        
Stable SPICE circuit simulation with outperforms pay-for options. It has an unlimited number of nodes, schematic/symbol editor,
waveform viewer, and a library of passive devices. In addition, it is also a
great schematic capture.

·        
Fast simulation of switching mode power supplies (SMPS). This includes steady state detection, turn on transient, step
response, and efficiency/power computations.

      With this, LTspice is
one of the best free simulation software that can be used to yield necessary output
for the completion of this experiment.5

A.      
Activity 1: Shunt Voltage Regulator

The schematic diagram for shunt voltage
regulator is as follows:

Fig. 4.   
Simple Circuit using Spice directives

            In
this circuit the ‘.param’ will set the parameters as shown in Figure 4, R1 was
set to 10k?. The R1 should be inside the curly braces for it to work. The
‘.step param’ on the other hand will set the parameters but with a step. In
figure 4 the effect of the values of R2 are 1k?, 10k?, and 2.25k? were seen on
the graph showing the voltages at R1 and R2. The green label indicates the
input voltage and the blue label indicates the voltage at R1 and R2.

Fig. 5.   
DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)

      In Figure 5, the LT317A
subsystem was used which is a linear voltage regulator and among other
components to create a linear DC sweep simulation. The top plane graph shows
the source voltage versus the source current and the bottom plane graph was the
output voltage versus the output current.

Fig. 6.   
AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)

            This
circuit is an RC bandpass filter and an AC analysis. The graph in Figure 6
shows the bode plot of the output voltage with respect to the input voltage.

Fig. 7.   
Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)

            Here
in Figure 7, an ideal opamp was used to create an inverting amplifier. This
circuit shows a transient analysis of an inverting amplifier with a voltage
gain of -5. The same with figure 4, the ‘.param’ were used to create a
parameter for the components R1 and R2. Noticing the rotated ‘V+’ and ‘V-‘, it
is a net port. A net port is used to connect two or more end of a line network
in a circuit, which in this case was used to supply positive and negative
voltage for the opamp ‘OP07’.

Fig. 8.   
Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)

            Although
figure 7 and figure 8 are the same transient analysis they are different. Figure
7 is for the analysis of transient but for inverting amplifier while figure 8
is for PWM filtering. The voltage was set to pulse voltage that is set to 0Vdc
and 5v amplitude. The top plane graph shows the source pulse voltage and the
bottom plane graph the output voltage with filtering.

Fig. 9.   
Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)

      Figure 9 is a simple
rectifier and the same with Figure 4 with a spice directive of ‘.step param’
but instead of a resistor, here it is the capacitor. Figure 9 is full-wave
bridge rectifier that converts the AC signal into a rectified output. Since it
is only a rectifier and a filter, a ripple is present on the graph. The green
graph in the bottom plane is the high ripple voltage which is the 10?F and the
blue graph in the bottom plane the lower ripple of the capacitor 100?F.

                                                                                                                                                   
IV.      
Experimentation

To
verify the simulation stated in part 3 of the document, the researchers made
their own simulation following the manual individually.

Materials, Tools, Equipment and Testing Devices

Fig. 10. Laptop

Fig. 11. LT Spice Software

Before anything else,
procurement of necessary materials was conducted. The following are the
materials, tools, equipment and testing devices used in the experiment:

·        
Laptop

·        
LT Spice software

A.      
Acuña

picture

Fig. 12.
Basic circuit

picture

Fig. 13.
DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)

picture

Fig. 14.
AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)

picture

Fig. 15.
Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)

picture

Fig. 16.
Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)

picture

Fig. 17.
Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)

B.      
Canaya

Fig. 18.
Basic Circuit

Fig. 19.
DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)

Fig. 20.
AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)

Fig. 21.
Transient Analaysis (Inverting Amplifier)

Fig. 22.
Transient Analysis (PWM filter)

Fig. 23. Step Parameter
(Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)

 

C.De Leon

PICTURE

Fig. 24.
Basic Circuit

picture

Fig. 25.
DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)

picture

Fig. 26.
AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)

picture

Fig. 27.
Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)

picture

Fig. 28.
Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)

picture

Fig. 29.
Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)

D.Diaz

PICTURE

Fig. 30.
Basic Circuit

picture

Fig. 31.
DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)

picture

Fig. 32.
AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)

picture

Fig. 33.
Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)

picture

Fig. 34.
Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)

picture

Fig. 35.
Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)

E.    Ingat

PICTURE

Fig. 36.
Basic Circuit

picture

Fig. 37.
DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)

picture

Fig. 38.
AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)

picture

Fig. 39.
Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)

picture

Fig. 40.
Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)

picture

Fig. 41.
Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)

                                                                                                                                                     
V.      
Data
and Results 

In this section, tables and graphs are
presented to further understand the activity.

A.      
Acuña

PICTURE

Fig. 42.
Basic Circuit

picture

Fig. 43.
DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)

picture

Fig. 44.
AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)

picture

Fig. 45.
Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)

picture

Fig. 46.
Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)

picture

Fig. 47.
Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)

B.      
Canaya

Fig. 48.
Basic Circuit

Fig. 49.
DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)

Fig. 50.
AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)

Fig. 51.
Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)

Fig. 52.
Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)

Fig. 53.
Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)

C.     
De Leon

PICTURE

Fig. 54.
Basic Circuit

picture

Fig. 55.
DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)

picture

Fig. 56.
AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)

picture

Fig. 57.
Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)

picture

Fig. 58.
Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)

picture

Fig. 59.
Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)

D.     
Diaz

PICTURE

Fig. 60.
Basic Circuit

picture

Fig. 61.
DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)

picture

Fig. 62.
AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)

picture

Fig. 63.
Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)

picture

Fig. 64.
Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)

picture

Fig. 65.
Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)

E.      
Ingat

PICTURE

Fig. 66.
Basic Circuit

picture

Fig. 67.
DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)

picture

Fig. 68.
AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)

picture

Fig. 69.
Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)

picture

Fig. 70.
Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)

picture

Fig. 71.
Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)

                                                                                                                                                 
VI.           
RECOMMENDATIONS

For the
sake of improving the laboratory experiment use to understand the concept
regarding the working principle of the LT Spice simulator, the researchers
suggest to study SPICE directives and on how to apply third-party model to have
a variety of component models

                                                                                                                                                             
VII.      
Summary

      As a recap, this experiment demonstrated the use of LT spice for simulation. It is freeware
computer software that implements a SPICE simulator of electronic circuits.
Spice is a very useful tool, which can give some insight into the response of
your circuits design. If the user is a beginner, it is useful as a learning
tool and helps cement some of the theory by visualizing the circuit response
before a building it.

 Its strength comes to
designing more complex circuits and/or you may have input waveforms from
another system. Furthermore, it’s quite easy to learn and configure a circuit
to test and LT spice then allows you to probe various points to examine the
waveforms.

                                                                                                       
VIII.      
Problems
Encountered and Actions taken

     During the experiment, the manual did not
indicate where the voltages or the current were being measured so, in order to
know, the researchers analyzed the circuit and using the knowledge acquired
during the studies, the researchers were able to know where the probe should
be.

                                                                                                                                                           
IX. Task
Distribution

The tasks are fairly distributed to the
students:

TABLE I.            
Division of Tasks

Member

Task

Acuña

Simulations
Data and Results
Conclusions and
Recommendations

Canaya

Introduction
Simulations
Data and Results
Problems Encountered
and Actions Taken
 

De
Leon

Simulations
Data and Results
Abstract

Diaz

Simulations
Data and Results
Objectives

Ingat

Simulations
Summary
Data and Results

      Each member contributed to the completion
of this laboratory report.

                                                                                                                                                                        
X. References

 1
http://e-articles.info/e/a/title/Disadvantages-and-Advantages-of-Simulations-in-Online-Education/

2 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_circuit_si
mulation