TECHNOLOGICAL Spice IV with Examples LABORATORY NO. 2 Submitted

 TECHNOLOGICALINSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES938 Aurora Blvd.

, Cubao, Quezon City  COLLEGE OF ENGINEERINGAND ARCHITECTUREELECTRONICSENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  2ND SEMESTERAY 2017-2018MIDTERM Basic PowerElectronicsECE 112EC42FB1 Introductionto LT Spice IV with ExamplesLABORATORY NO. 2   Submittedto:Engr. Reginald Phelps T. Laguna Submittedon:January 10, 2018 Submittedby:Acuña, Jonalyn A.Canaya, Regina Marie V.De Leon, Dean Rowel T.

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Diaz, Renzo C.Ingat, Alyssa A.Introduction to LT Spice IVwith ExamplesLaboratoryNo. 2Abstract— LTSpice is an adaptable,precise and an open circuit simulator available for Windows and Mac. In thisdocument, we’ll provide a synopsis of DC and AC simulation, as well as how toanalyze output signals helping the students to understand the workingprinciples of the LT Spice IV. The basic spice directives were simulated byapplying to different circuits such as DC sweep (Linear Regulator), AC analysis(Second-Order Bandpass Filter), Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier),Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering), and Step Parameter (Full-Wave BridgeRectifier.)                                                                                                                                                             I.

      Introduction      Electronic circuitsimulation uses mathematical models to replicate the behavior of an actualelectronic device or circuit. Simulation software allows for modeling ofcircuit operation and is an invaluable analysis tool. Due to its highlyaccurate modeling capability, many colleges and universities use this type ofsoftware for the teaching of electronics technician and electronics engineeringprograms. Electronics simulation software engages the user by integrating theminto the learning experience. These kinds of interactions actively engagelearners to analyze, synthesize, organize, and evaluate content and result inlearners constructing their own knowledge.1           Simulating a circuit’s behavior beforeactually building it can greatly improve design efficiency by making faultydesigns known as such, and providing insight into the behavior of electronicscircuit designs. In particular, for integrated circuits, the tooling(photomasks) is expensive, breadboards are impractical, and probing thebehavior of internal signals is extremely difficult.

Therefore, almost all ICdesign relies heavily on simulation. The most well-known analog simulator isSPICE.2      LT spice is ahigh-performance SPICE simulator, schematic capture and waveform viewer withenhancements and models for easing the simulation of switching regulators.  The developments to SPICE have madesimulating switching regulators exceptionally fast compared to normalsimulators, allowing the user to view waveforms for most switching regulatorsin just a few minutes.   Fig. 1.   LT Spice logo Fig.

2.   Initial Window after Opening LT Spice      Spice is a very usefultool, which can give some insight into the response of your circuits design. Ifthe user is a beginner, it is useful as a learning tool and helps cement someof the theory by visualizing the response of the circuit before you actuallybuild it.

      Its strength comes todesigning more complex circuits and/or you may have input waveforms fromanother system. Furthermore, it’s quite easy to learn and configure a circuitto test and LT spice then allows you to probe various points to examine thewaveforms.3 Fig. 3.   Circuit Building Toolbar      Figure 3 shows thetoolbar where the components used for creating a circuit is found. The commoncomponents that were intuitive were resistor, capacitor, inductor, capacitor,ground, and diode which can be accessed by hotkeys.                                                                                                                                                                II.      ObjectivesThis activity aims to present the basicworking principles of LT Spice.

Furthermore, this activity has the followingspecific objectives:·        Examine the toolbars and working space ofthe LT Spice·        Analyzing the Spice directives andshortcuts·        Choosing specific components by usingspecific model.                                                                                                                                                          III.      SimulationsThe students used LT spice for simulation.It is a freeware computer software that implements a SPICE simulator ofelectronic circuits. It is produced by semiconductor manufacturer LinearTechnology (LTC).

4        LTspicehas the following benefits: 6·        Stable SPICE circuit simulation with outperforms pay-for options. It has an unlimited number of nodes, schematic/symbol editor,waveform viewer, and a library of passive devices. In addition, it is also agreat schematic capture.·        Fast simulation of switching mode power supplies (SMPS).

This includes steady state detection, turn on transient, stepresponse, and efficiency/power computations.      With this, LTspice isone of the best free simulation software that can be used to yield necessary outputfor the completion of this experiment.5A.      Activity 1: Shunt Voltage RegulatorThe schematic diagram for shunt voltageregulator is as follows: Fig. 4.   Simple Circuit using Spice directives            Inthis circuit the ‘.param’ will set the parameters as shown in Figure 4, R1 wasset to 10k?. The R1 should be inside the curly braces for it to work.

The’.step param’ on the other hand will set the parameters but with a step. Infigure 4 the effect of the values of R2 are 1k?, 10k?, and 2.25k? were seen onthe graph showing the voltages at R1 and R2.

The green label indicates theinput voltage and the blue label indicates the voltage at R1 and R2. Fig. 5.   DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)      In Figure 5, the LT317Asubsystem was used which is a linear voltage regulator and among othercomponents to create a linear DC sweep simulation. The top plane graph showsthe source voltage versus the source current and the bottom plane graph was theoutput voltage versus the output current.

Fig. 6.   AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)            Thiscircuit is an RC bandpass filter and an AC analysis. The graph in Figure 6shows the bode plot of the output voltage with respect to the input voltage. Fig.

7.   Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)            Herein Figure 7, an ideal opamp was used to create an inverting amplifier. Thiscircuit shows a transient analysis of an inverting amplifier with a voltagegain of -5. The same with figure 4, the ‘.param’ were used to create aparameter for the components R1 and R2.

Noticing the rotated ‘V+’ and ‘V-‘, itis a net port. A net port is used to connect two or more end of a line networkin a circuit, which in this case was used to supply positive and negativevoltage for the opamp ‘OP07’. Fig. 8.   Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)            Althoughfigure 7 and figure 8 are the same transient analysis they are different. Figure7 is for the analysis of transient but for inverting amplifier while figure 8is for PWM filtering. The voltage was set to pulse voltage that is set to 0Vdcand 5v amplitude.

The top plane graph shows the source pulse voltage and thebottom plane graph the output voltage with filtering. Fig. 9.   Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)      Figure 9 is a simplerectifier and the same with Figure 4 with a spice directive of ‘.step param’but instead of a resistor, here it is the capacitor. Figure 9 is full-wavebridge rectifier that converts the AC signal into a rectified output. Since itis only a rectifier and a filter, a ripple is present on the graph. The greengraph in the bottom plane is the high ripple voltage which is the 10?F and theblue graph in the bottom plane the lower ripple of the capacitor 100?F.

                                                                                                                                                   IV.      ExperimentationToverify the simulation stated in part 3 of the document, the researchers madetheir own simulation following the manual individually.Materials, Tools, Equipment and Testing Devices Fig.

10. Laptop Fig. 11. LT Spice SoftwareBefore anything else,procurement of necessary materials was conducted. The following are thematerials, tools, equipment and testing devices used in the experiment:·        Laptop ·        LT Spice softwareA.      AcuñapictureFig.

12.Basic circuit pictureFig. 13.DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)pictureFig.

14.AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)pictureFig. 15.Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)pictureFig. 16.Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)pictureFig.

17.Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)B.      Canaya Fig. 18.Basic Circuit Fig. 19.DC Sweep (Linear Regulator) Fig.

20.AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter) Fig. 21.

Transient Analaysis (Inverting Amplifier) Fig. 22.Transient Analysis (PWM filter) Fig. 23. Step Parameter(Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier) C.De LeonPICTUREFig.

24.Basic Circuit pictureFig. 25.DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)pictureFig. 26.AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)pictureFig. 27.

Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)pictureFig. 28.Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)pictureFig. 29.Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)D.DiazPICTUREFig. 30.Basic Circuit pictureFig.

31.DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)pictureFig. 32.AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)pictureFig. 33.Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)pictureFig.

34.Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)pictureFig. 35.Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)E.

   IngatPICTUREFig. 36.Basic Circuit pictureFig. 37.DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)pictureFig. 38.AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)pictureFig.

39.Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)pictureFig. 40.Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)pictureFig.

41.Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)                                                                                                                                                     V.      Dataand Results  In this section, tables and graphs arepresented to further understand the activity.A.      AcuñaPICTUREFig. 42.Basic Circuit pictureFig. 43.

DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)pictureFig. 44.AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)pictureFig. 45.

Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)pictureFig. 46.Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)pictureFig. 47.Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)B.      Canaya Fig. 48.Basic Circuit Fig.

49.DC Sweep (Linear Regulator) Fig. 50.AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter) Fig. 51.Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier) Fig. 52.

Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering) Fig. 53.Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)C.     De LeonPICTUREFig. 54.Basic Circuit pictureFig. 55.DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)pictureFig.

56.AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)pictureFig. 57.Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)pictureFig.

58.Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)pictureFig. 59.Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)D.     DiazPICTUREFig. 60.Basic Circuit pictureFig.

61.DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)pictureFig. 62.

AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)pictureFig. 63.Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)pictureFig. 64.

Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)pictureFig. 65.Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)E.      IngatPICTUREFig. 66.

Basic Circuit pictureFig. 67.DC Sweep (Linear Regulator)pictureFig. 68.AC Analysis (Second-Order Bandpass Filter)pictureFig.

69.Transient Analysis (Inverting Amplifier)pictureFig. 70.Transient Analysis (PWM Filtering)pictureFig. 71.Step Parameter (Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier)                                                                                                                                                 VI.           RECOMMENDATIONSFor thesake of improving the laboratory experiment use to understand the conceptregarding the working principle of the LT Spice simulator, the researcherssuggest to study SPICE directives and on how to apply third-party model to havea variety of component models                                                                                                                                                             VII.      Summary      As a recap, this experiment demonstrated the use of LT spice for simulation.

It is freewarecomputer software that implements a SPICE simulator of electronic circuits.Spice is a very useful tool, which can give some insight into the response ofyour circuits design. If the user is a beginner, it is useful as a learningtool and helps cement some of the theory by visualizing the circuit responsebefore a building it. Its strength comes todesigning more complex circuits and/or you may have input waveforms fromanother system. Furthermore, it’s quite easy to learn and configure a circuitto test and LT spice then allows you to probe various points to examine thewaveforms.

                                                                                                       VIII.      ProblemsEncountered and Actions taken     During the experiment, the manual did notindicate where the voltages or the current were being measured so, in order toknow, the researchers analyzed the circuit and using the knowledge acquiredduring the studies, the researchers were able to know where the probe shouldbe.                                                                                                                                                            IX.

TaskDistributionThe tasks are fairly distributed to thestudents:TABLE I.            Division of Tasks Member Task Acuña Simulations Data and Results Conclusions and Recommendations Canaya Introduction Simulations Data and Results Problems Encountered and Actions Taken   De Leon Simulations Data and Results Abstract Diaz Simulations Data and Results Objectives Ingat Simulations Summary Data and Results       Each member contributed to the completionof this laboratory report.                                                                                                                                                                        X. References 1http://e-articles.info/e/a/title/Disadvantages-and-Advantages-of-Simulations-in-Online-Education/2 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_circuit_simulation