Teaching OralCommunication requires teachers, school administration and students to assesstheir needs and weaknesses as well as their strengths and skills in order todeliver whatever is necessary to achieve the objectives of the course. Theseobjectives are the foundation of the curriculum. Porter (2004) emphasized that a curriculumis classified as Intended, Implemented, and Achieved. Intended Curriculumestablishes the goal, specific purposes or objectives of the curriculum. Theseobjectives serve as the guide for the implementation of the course; thus,determining and evaluating the Oral Communication curricula which include thecourse objectives of the subject in each college or university is necessary.
Implemented curriculum, on the other hand,refers to the activities that are required in order for the students to achievethe intended course objectives. The Achieved curriculum refers to the productof the curriculum implementation. This indicates the students’ performancerelative to the objectives and activities of both the Intended and Implementedcurricula. In an oral communication curriculum, it isimportant that a student is given ample venue where he can test and practicehis skills to hone his oral communication skills, and consequently achieve thecourse objectives. Since students learn in diverse ways, teachers are thereforeencouraged to engage in activities outside class hours and utilize a widevariety of instructional strategies (Kennedy, 2007). In order for these activities to serve asmeaningful venues of learning, teachers and students are required to worktogether as a team. They must develop the objectives of the activities togetherso that they are both aware of the achievements the students have made. Another way to ensure that the objective istargeting the correct and appropriate learning outcomes, Bart (2010) suggests”curriculum mapping” or “cross-curriculum development”.
This process helpsfaculty members design a curriculum that is also anchored to the objectives ofother courses. Moreover, this will enhance and reinforce learning and skillsdevelopment since the instruction and delivery of lessons are connected toother lessons that students are currently learning. Being a general education subject, OralCommunication demands that its content is related to the topics in othercourses.
Doing such will not only help students practice speaking skills butalso master other related lessons. However, there are still problems that mostteachers encounter. Klionsky in Weimer (2010) contends that “curriculumdevelopment no longer involves rational and integrated course design. Teachersusually do not have an idea of what the students have learned in the previousand other subjects. Also, according to him, even new coursesare added based on the expertise of the faculty rather than on the needs of thestudents. Klionsky (2009) thinks that “showing students how to learn (and lovelearning) is more important that trying to (in vain) to fill their heads withthe latest esoteric facts.
” For him, the purpose of a university education isnot to produce finished products. Rather, the purpose is to produce lifelonglearning who will continue to seek knowledge even after graduation. Similarly, the purpose of OralCommunication is not only to produce students who are good at expressing theirthoughts and feelings but also able to adjust their level of knowledge andcommunication skills to various communication situations and to differentpeople of diverse culture, educational background, and social status. Withthis, students can fully function as productive members of the society and asindividuals who are ready for the competitive worldwide community. To summarize, oral communication asa general education subject before the implementation of K+12 has underwentrevisions in order to provide education that would equip students withknowledge essential in making them ethical, spiritual, moral, and proactivecitizens of the country. With the University of the Philippines as therecognized leader in General Education, the course had been developed to abideby existing laws- Batas Pambansa 232, 1973 Constitution, and 1987 Constitution.
With the creation of the Commissionon Higher Education (CHED) through Republic Act 7722, all higher educationinstitutions are mandated to improve the quality of tertiary education and thepercentage of graduates who pass licensure examinations, and heighten thecompetencies of the students in oral and written communication. With this, theimplementation of oral communication course across all colleges anduniversities is deemed even more crucial. More importantly, because of thedemand of national and international labor market, these tertiary institutions,including the CHED itself, are pressed to produce graduates who are competitivecommunicators and who are aware of the ethical use and importance of oralcommunication.Now that the course is relegated tothe Senior High School of the K+12 curriculum of the Department of Education,there is a need to probe on the course even more meticulously in order toensure that high school students are “communicatively ready” before they enterthe formal tertiary education.
With the use of theContext-Input-Process-Product (CIPP) Evaluation Model of Daniel Stufflebeam,the course is assessed if the needs are addressed, how these needs areaddressed, and if such attempt to address the needs is successful. Finally,because CIPP Evaluation Model has been used both in the industrial andeducational sectors, there is a greater chance that the call to improvetertiary education and develop citizens who are proactive, ethical, andeffective communicators is answered.Withthis in mind, the researcher evaluated the Oral Communication course using theCIPP (Context-Input-Process-Product) Model of Daniel Stufflebeam. The resultsof the evaluation were the bases for the proposed enhancement of the deliveryof oral communication course in the senior high school program of theDepartment of Education.