Table of Contents 1.
0 Introduction. 3 1.1 Non-Renewable Energy. 3 1.2 Renewable Energy.
4 2.0 Wind Energy. 4 2.1 Working principle of wind. 4 3.0 Wind Turbine.
5 Figure 1: World Energy Consumption. 3Figure 2: Working Principle ofWind. 4Figure 3: Wind Mill 5Figure 4: Energy Sources forPower Generation in Michigan 2009 (Left) and 2016(Right) 10Figure 5: Wind Power Data inMichigan Source:https://windexchange.energy.
gov/maps-data?category=community&page=2. 11Figure 6: Wind Speed Data forMichigan Source:https://windexchange.energy.gov/maps-data?category=community&page=2. 11Figure 7:Year-wise InstalledWind Power Capacity Source: Wikipedia. 12Figure 8: DTE Energy WindProjects Source: https://www.newlook.dteenergy.
com.. 13Figure 9: Wind Farm Energy Map-2017. 14 1.0 Introduction Energy comes from doing a physical work. The mostknown form of physical work is combustion Which has been used since early man age.
From past 10 years, global energy consumption hasincreased as shown in Figure 1 and consumption is scoped to increaseby 41% by 2035, If nothing is done to control it. The energy is produced fromcrude oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear and renewable sources such as wind, hydro,solar etc.Figure 1: World Energy ConsumptionBased on the source of generation, energy can dividein two types:· Non-Renewable energy · Renewable energy1.1 Non-RenewableEnergy Non-renewable energy comes from sources that will runout or will not be replenished. The major source for non-renewable energy isfossils fuels. This source take thousands of years to form naturally.
So, therate at which the regeneration is too long as compared to the rate of usagethen the source can be termed as nonrenewable energy. Eg: Fossil fuels (Coal and Crude oil), Wood, Minerals(Uranium)1.2 Renewable Energy Renewable energy comes from source that can be easilyrenewed by nature. The rate of which the regeneration is not affected by rateof use.
Eg: Solar energy, Wind energy, hydro energy, Geothermal, etc.2.0 Wind Energy It is a well-known fact that energy cannot be createdor destroyed; it can be converted from one from to another. Wind power is alsoa form of energy which is converted from wind (air flow) to physical work andfinally using generators to generate electric power 2.1 Working Principleof WindWind is also called air motion. This air motion isgenerated by uneven heating by earth’s surface from the sun. How this works isthe heated particles expand on the principle of heat flow rate. Hence when thesun rays land on surface it also heats up the air close to it.
A void iscreated as the air pressure close to surface is more as compared to the airaway, this makes the warm air rises. The constant sequence of above principlemakes sure there is air flow.Figure 2:Working Principle of WindTo capture this wind into useful form we require toconvert this wind to useful energy by using Wind turbine. The prime advantageof this type of energy is its clean energy and produces no greenhouse gas orpollution. 3.0 Wind TurbineIt’s well known fact that in early days wind millswere used to pump water, going further the wind was replaced by bullocks. Butthis was the prime idea behind the wind turbine.
An early age wind mill is asshown in the figure below Figure 3.Figure 3:Wind MillBut the modern-day turbines can be classified intothree types based on the rotors orientation;· Vertical axis wind turbine· Horizontal axis wind turbine · Ducted Wind Turbines 3.1 Vertical Axis Wind TurbineIn the type of turbine, the axis or the shaft isvertical to the ground. There are two sub types of vertical axis wind turbine;Lift based and drag based. Lift based designed are more efficient compared todrag type.
The advantage of this types of turbine is easy to maintain as theshaft is near to ground, construction and transportation is cheaper. Thedisadvantage of this is that it causes drag due to persistent spinning back.Figure 4: Vertical Axis Wind Turbine3.2 Horizontal Axis Wind TurbineThis is most famous and common type of wind turbine.In this type of turbine, the shaft or the axis is horizontal or parallel to theground.
The wind is faced by the blades. The advantages of this type of turbineis stability as the blades are to the side of the turbine, self-starting andthe blades can pitch in storm to reduce any storm damage. The primarydisadvantage of this is transportation, operating at low ground level whichmakes the installation cost higher.Figure 5: Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine3.3 Ducted Wind TurbineThese are the urban wind turbines positioned at theedge of the roof of the building and utilize the corner airflow which isgenerated due to the air hitting the building wall which makes the air enterthe turbine duct and rotates the blade.
The primary advantage is the it usesunused space for generation and there will not be much transmission loss. Theprimary disadvantage is it can be used only for tall building and its uni-directional.Figure 6: Ducted Wind Turbine 3.4 Working Principle of Wind TurbineWind turbine working principle is on the principlethat turbine takes energy from the wind and converts into electrical energy bya series of operation as shown in the Figure 7.
· Thehigh-speed winds hit the blades of turbine· Theblades of the turbine then turn slowly taking away energy from the high-speedwind and rotate the axis or the shaft · Theblades not only rotate at the axis, but they also swivel at different angles,to capture maximum energy. Anemometer is attached to control the direction andmeasure speed· Theshaft or axis is connected to set of gears which converts low RPM to high RPMto get maximum efficiency· Thishigh RPM gear shaft is connected to generator which converts mechanical energyto electrical energy· Thereis also yaw motor which is used to turn direction to make sure that the turbineis normal to the wind flow. There is also provision for brakes to cut off whichthe speed is too high.· Theelectrical energy is then flows through wire to transformer, to make sure itsuitable for distribution · Finally,the current is supplied to homes Figure 7: Working Principle of Wind Turbine4.0 Development of Wind Energy in Michigan Fossil Fuels which havebeen long serving our energy needs from past to future are depleting. It is expectedthat Crude oil reserves will last only for another 40-50 years.
This majorconcern brings us to together to look for alternative sources to satiate ourincreasing energy needs. The automotive industryis slowly moving away from conventional ICE vehicles to Hybrids and Electricvehicles which will only add more burden on the existing electrical energyneeds. Also, Energy industry wants to shut all the fossil fuel and Gas powerplants owing to increase in pollution level and global warming. So, sticking toconventional energy sources is no longer an option as decreasing energy sourcesand increasing energy demand are to opposite curves which will not intersectforever unless we find a solution to bridge the ever-increasing gap.
Thatbridge is Renewable Energy.Renewable energy sourcesare sources which are readily available in nature and continuously provideenergy and regenerate. These sources will never run out of energy in a lifetimeunlike conventional fuels. These are also called Sustainable energy sourcescause over or vigorous usage of these sources in the present will not affectthe sustainable needs of our future generations.Some of the examples ofthese types of resources are Wind, Solar, Geo-thermal, Tidal, Bio-Gas etc.
Figure8: Energy Sources for Power Generation inMichigan 2009 (Left) and 2016(Right) Michigan’s major energy sources are Coal, Nuclear, Natural Gas, includeWind energy, Solar Energy etc. In 2009, share of non-renewable energy sourceswas 96% and 4% came from renewable energy sources. By 2016 share of renewableenergy sources increased by 200% almost from 4% to 7.8%. As per data obtainedfrom state’s public service commission, 50% of renewable energy comes from Wind, 25% of it comes from biomass, 17% from landfill gas and solid waste, about 10% from hydroelectric and less than 1% is from solar. Thus, by far making wind energy the largest form of renewable energy inMichigan.
So, in this study, wewill focus on the development of Wind Energy in the state of Michigan. Michiganis 14th most wind energy abundant state in the United States ofAmerica. It has a potential for 16500MW onshore installation capacity and300000MW offshore installation capacity. As of 2017, 4.
25% of total electricityproduced in Michigan is contributed by Wind Energy, which makes the state 14thin the country. 887 Wind Turbines in the state produce 1760 megawatts ofelectricity with 30MW more under construction. Most of the Wind Energyis located on the coastal areas of Michigan. This can be attributed to greatlakes surrounding the state.
The below image shows average wind speed valuesfor different regions in the state. Most of the regions in lower peninsula haveaverage speed of 6.5m/s and in upper peninsula have low winds at 5.0m/s. So, onaverage we have winds of 5.75m/s which is reasonable speed. Winds along thecoast are very strong due to flat surface of great lakes. Thus, Coastal regionis rich in wind power density and is an ideal location to harness this energy.
Today, Thumb region is where majority of wind power is produced in the state.It is because of advantages like high stable wind speeds, location, proximityto living areas.Figure 9: Wind Power Data in Michigan .Figure 10: Wind Speed Data for Michigan Before2008:Wind energy before 2008wasn’t significant power source in the state compare to other sources ofenergy. The story of Renewable energy sources in Michigan started way back in1996.In 1996 Traverse city, installation of 0.
6MW marked the beginning of windenergy in the state. Later another two 2 turbines of 0.6 MW each wereinstalled. The commercial windfarm first came up in the Thumb was Harvest Wind Farm which opened in December2007.It is 53MW plant with 32 turbines by far making it the largest at thattime. 2008-Present:The data shows theinstalled wind capacity in each year in the state of Michigan. The growth ofwind energy picked up after 2008, after which almost 1600MW of capacity was added.This rapid growth is a result of all major utility companies’ commitment toincrease the share of renewable energy sources to almost 30% by 2030.
Figure 11:Year-wise Installed Wind Power Capacity Renewable Energy Source industry has got a boost whenDepartment of state has passed a Public Act 295 – Renewable Portfolio Standard into law. TheAct states that at least 10% of total electricity production in United Statesshould be from Renewable Energy sources by 2015. To achieve this ambitioustarget, Wind Energy Resource Zone Board was established. The primary goal ofthis board is to study wind energy potential in the state and viability of windas a source to produce electricity and availability of land for potential use. The Board has later submitted a report which includeddifferent regions with potential for wind energy and maximum and minimum windspeed and installation capacity for these regions. The major outcomes of theboard are: Transmission Planning in high wind resource areas and justificationfor funding of transmission installation, Potential for expedited siting fortransmission in final selected wind energy zones and a report andrecommendations to the legislature on effects of local policy on wind generationsiting.
In 2010,only 0.3% of Michigan’s total electrical power was generated through windenergy which almost doubled to 377 MW capacity by the end of 2011. The largestwind farm in Michigan, the 213 MW Gratiot County WindProject, entered full operation in June 2012.
Michigan’s two major utilitycompanies DTE Energy and Consumer Energy DTE have been rapidly developing wind parks in Michigan since2008. The DTE has so far invested about $2 billion dollars in renewable energysector. Figure 12: DTE Energy Wind ProjectsAs of today, 4,55,000homes in Michigan are powered by DTE energy’s electrical power generatedthrough wind energy, thus making it the state’s largest investor and producerof wind energy in the state. Most of the projects are located on the coastalregion of the Thumb which has high power winds. Also, a high-capacity, 140-mile electric transmission line called theThumb Loop was completed as part of phase 1 of development Wind energy sectorin thumb region. It can carry electricity linked from the planned 2,800 windturbines in the region.
Future Projects:· The amendment wasmade to 2008 act in 2016 and the new law requires that the current renewableenergy production which stands at 10% be increased to 15% of total energyproduced in the state by the year 2022.· Traverse City Light & Power has announceda project to generate 30% of its power from renewable sources by 2020. · DTE Energy hasplans of installing an additional wind plants of 560MW by 2022.· Plans underwayshow 2132MW operational by the end of 2017 and early 2018.
· The below figureshows different current wind farm projects and projects under development whichwill be commissioned soon. Figure 13: Wind Farm Energy Map- 2017 Source: https://www.michigan.gov/documents/mpsc/wind_map_407661_7.pdf https://thumbwind.com/michigan-wind-farm-map/ Source:US Energy AdministrationSource: https://windexchange.energy.gov/maps-data?category=community&page=2Source: https://windexchange.energy.gov/maps-data?category=community&page=2Source: https://www.newlook.dteenergy.com