Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction. 3
1.1 Non-Renewable Energy. 3
1.2 Renewable Energy. 4
2.0 Wind Energy. 4
2.1 Working principle of wind. 4
3.0 Wind Turbine. 5
Figure 1: World Energy Consumption. 3
Figure 2: Working Principle of
Figure 3: Wind Mill 5
Figure 4: Energy Sources for
Power Generation in Michigan 2009 (Left) and 2016(Right) 10
Figure 5: Wind Power Data in
Figure 6: Wind Speed Data for
Figure 7:Year-wise Installed
Wind Power Capacity Source: Wikipedia. 12
Figure 8: DTE Energy Wind
Projects Source: https://www.newlook.dteenergy.com.. 13
Figure 9: Wind Farm Energy Map-
Energy comes from doing a physical work. The most
known form of physical work is combustion Which has been used since early man age.
From past 10 years, global energy consumption has
increased as shown in Figure 1 and consumption is scoped to increase
by 41% by 2035, If nothing is done to control it. The energy is produced from
crude oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear and renewable sources such as wind, hydro,
Figure 1: World Energy Consumption
Based on the source of generation, energy can divide
in two types:
· Non-Renewable energy
· Renewable energy
Non-renewable energy comes from sources that will run
out or will not be replenished. The major source for non-renewable energy is
fossils fuels. This source take thousands of years to form naturally. So, the
rate at which the regeneration is too long as compared to the rate of usage
then the source can be termed as nonrenewable energy.
Eg: Fossil fuels (Coal and Crude oil), Wood, Minerals(Uranium)
1.2 Renewable Energy
Renewable energy comes from source that can be easily
renewed by nature. The rate of which the regeneration is not affected by rate
Eg: Solar energy, Wind energy, hydro energy, Geo
2.0 Wind Energy
It is a well-known fact that energy cannot be created
or destroyed; it can be converted from one from to another. Wind power is also
a form of energy which is converted from wind (air flow) to physical work and
finally using generators to generate electric power
2.1 Working Principle
Wind is also called air motion. This air motion is
generated by uneven heating by earth’s surface from the sun. How this works is
the heated particles expand on the principle of heat flow rate. Hence when the
sun rays land on surface it also heats up the air close to it. A void is
created as the air pressure close to surface is more as compared to the air
away, this makes the warm air rises. The constant sequence of above principle
makes sure there is air flow.
Working Principle of Wind
To capture this wind into useful form we require to
convert this wind to useful energy by using Wind turbine. The prime advantage
of this type of energy is its clean energy and produces no greenhouse gas or
3.0 Wind Turbine
It’s well known fact that in early days wind mills
were used to pump water, going further the wind was replaced by bullocks. But
this was the prime idea behind the wind turbine. An early age wind mill is as
shown in the figure below Figure 3.
But the modern-day turbines can be classified into
three types based on the rotors orientation;
· Vertical axis wind turbine
· Horizontal axis wind turbine
· Ducted Wind Turbines
3.1 Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
In the type of turbine, the axis or the shaft is
vertical to the ground. There are two sub types of vertical axis wind turbine;
Lift based and drag based. Lift based designed are more efficient compared to
drag type. The advantage of this types of turbine is easy to maintain as the
shaft is near to ground, construction and transportation is cheaper. The
disadvantage of this is that it causes drag due to persistent spinning back.
Figure 4: Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
3.2 Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine
This is most famous and common type of wind turbine.
In this type of turbine, the shaft or the axis is horizontal or parallel to the
ground. The wind is faced by the blades. The advantages of this type of turbine
is stability as the blades are to the side of the turbine, self-starting and
the blades can pitch in storm to reduce any storm damage. The primary
disadvantage of this is transportation, operating at low ground level which
makes the installation cost higher.
Figure 5: Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine
3.3 Ducted Wind Turbine
These are the urban wind turbines positioned at the
edge of the roof of the building and utilize the corner airflow which is
generated due to the air hitting the building wall which makes the air enter
the turbine duct and rotates the blade. The primary advantage is the it uses
unused space for generation and there will not be much transmission loss. The
primary disadvantage is it can be used only for tall building and its uni-directional.
Figure 6: Ducted Wind Turbine
3.4 Working Principle of Wind Turbine
Wind turbine working principle is on the principle
that turbine takes energy from the wind and converts into electrical energy by
a series of operation as shown in the Figure 7.
high-speed winds hit the blades of turbine
blades of the turbine then turn slowly taking away energy from the high-speed
wind and rotate the axis or the shaft
blades not only rotate at the axis, but they also swivel at different angles,
to capture maximum energy. Anemometer is attached to control the direction and
shaft or axis is connected to set of gears which converts low RPM to high RPM
to get maximum efficiency
high RPM gear shaft is connected to generator which converts mechanical energy
to electrical energy
is also yaw motor which is used to turn direction to make sure that the turbine
is normal to the wind flow. There is also provision for brakes to cut off which
the speed is too high.
electrical energy is then flows through wire to transformer, to make sure it
suitable for distribution
the current is supplied to homes
Figure 7: Working Principle of Wind Turbine
4.0 Development of Wind Energy in Michigan
Fossil Fuels which have
been long serving our energy needs from past to future are depleting. It is expected
that Crude oil reserves will last only for another 40-50 years. This major
concern brings us to together to look for alternative sources to satiate our
increasing energy needs.
The automotive industry
is slowly moving away from conventional ICE vehicles to Hybrids and Electric
vehicles which will only add more burden on the existing electrical energy
needs. Also, Energy industry wants to shut all the fossil fuel and Gas power
plants owing to increase in pollution level and global warming.
So, sticking to
conventional energy sources is no longer an option as decreasing energy sources
and increasing energy demand are to opposite curves which will not intersect
forever unless we find a solution to bridge the ever-increasing gap. That
bridge is Renewable Energy.
Renewable energy sources
are sources which are readily available in nature and continuously provide
energy and regenerate. These sources will never run out of energy in a lifetime
unlike conventional fuels. These are also called Sustainable energy sources
cause over or vigorous usage of these sources in the present will not affect
the sustainable needs of our future generations.
Some of the examples of
these types of resources are Wind, Solar, Geo-thermal, Tidal, Bio-Gas etc.
8: Energy Sources for Power Generation in
Michigan 2009 (Left) and 2016(Right)
Michigan’s major energy sources are Coal, Nuclear, Natural Gas, include
Wind energy, Solar Energy etc. In 2009, share of non-renewable energy sources
was 96% and 4% came from renewable energy sources. By 2016 share of renewable
energy sources increased by 200% almost from 4% to 7.8%. As per data obtained
from state’s public service commission, 50% of renewable energy comes from Wind, 25% of it comes from biomass, 17% from landfill gas and solid waste, about 10% from hydroelectric and less than 1% is from solar.
Thus, by far making wind energy the largest form of renewable energy in
So, in this study, we
will focus on the development of Wind Energy in the state of Michigan. Michigan
is 14th most wind energy abundant state in the United States of
America. It has a potential for 16500MW onshore installation capacity and
300000MW offshore installation capacity. As of 2017, 4.25% of total electricity
produced in Michigan is contributed by Wind Energy, which makes the state 14th
in the country. 887 Wind Turbines in the state produce 1760 megawatts of
electricity with 30MW more under construction.
Most of the Wind Energy
is located on the coastal areas of Michigan. This can be attributed to great
lakes surrounding the state. The below image shows average wind speed values
for different regions in the state. Most of the regions in lower peninsula have
average speed of 6.5m/s and in upper peninsula have low winds at 5.0m/s. So, on
average we have winds of 5.75m/s which is reasonable speed. Winds along the
coast are very strong due to flat surface of great lakes. Thus, Coastal region
is rich in wind power density and is an ideal location to harness this energy.
Today, Thumb region is where majority of wind power is produced in the state.
It is because of advantages like high stable wind speeds, location, proximity
to living areas.
Figure 9: Wind Power Data in Michigan
Figure 10: Wind Speed Data for Michigan
Wind energy before 2008
wasn’t significant power source in the state compare to other sources of
energy. The story of Renewable energy sources in Michigan started way back in
1996.In 1996 Traverse city, installation of 0.6MW marked the beginning of wind
energy in the state. Later another two 2 turbines of 0.6 MW each were
installed. The commercial wind
farm first came up in the Thumb was Harvest Wind Farm which opened in December
2007.It is 53MW plant with 32 turbines by far making it the largest at that
The data shows the
installed wind capacity in each year in the state of Michigan. The growth of
wind energy picked up after 2008, after which almost 1600MW of capacity was added.
This rapid growth is a result of all major utility companies’ commitment to
increase the share of renewable energy sources to almost 30% by 2030.
Figure 11:Year-wise Installed Wind Power Capacity
Renewable Energy Source industry has got a boost when
Department of state has passed a Public Act 295 – Renewable Portfolio Standard into law. The
Act states that at least 10% of total electricity production in United States
should be from Renewable Energy sources by 2015. To achieve this ambitious
target, Wind Energy Resource Zone Board was established. The primary goal of
this board is to study wind energy potential in the state and viability of wind
as a source to produce electricity and availability of land for potential use.
The Board has later submitted a report which included
different regions with potential for wind energy and maximum and minimum wind
speed and installation capacity for these regions. The major outcomes of the
board are: Transmission Planning in high wind resource areas and justification
for funding of transmission installation, Potential for expedited siting for
transmission in final selected wind energy zones and a report and
recommendations to the legislature on effects of local policy on wind generation
only 0.3% of Michigan’s total electrical power was generated through wind
energy which almost doubled to 377 MW capacity by the end of 2011. The largest
wind farm in Michigan, the 213 MW Gratiot County Wind
Project, entered full operation in June 2012. Michigan’s two major utility
companies DTE Energy and Consumer Energy DTE have been rapidly developing wind parks in Michigan since
2008. The DTE has so far invested about $2 billion dollars in renewable energy
Figure 12: DTE Energy Wind Projects
As of today, 4,55,000
homes in Michigan are powered by DTE energy’s electrical power generated
through wind energy, thus making it the state’s largest investor and producer
of wind energy in the state. Most of the projects are located on the coastal
region of the Thumb which has high power winds.
Also, a high-capacity, 140-mile electric transmission line called the
Thumb Loop was completed as part of phase 1 of development Wind energy sector
in thumb region. It can carry electricity linked from the planned 2,800 wind
turbines in the region.
· The amendment was
made to 2008 act in 2016 and the new law requires that the current renewable
energy production which stands at 10% be increased to 15% of total energy
produced in the state by the year 2022.
· Traverse City Light & Power has announced
a project to generate 30% of its power from renewable sources by 2020.
· DTE Energy has
plans of installing an additional wind plants of 560MW by 2022.
· Plans underway
show 2132MW operational by the end of 2017 and early 2018.
· The below figure
shows different current wind farm projects and projects under development which
will be commissioned soon.
Figure 13: Wind Farm Energy Map- 2017
US Energy Administration