Sustainable development isbeing discussed by the society in recent years because people start to see theneed to work as soon as possible on solutions for the present environmentalproblems as the problems are getting more serious in an exponential rate.
Theincrease in rate is largely related to the human activities, especially the developmentof industries and economies. In this paper, sustainable development (SD) isdefined as the balanced development between economic, social and environment insight of not sacrificing the resources or services of the next generation. Wewould like to focus on countries that have an urge to deal with environmentalproblems as well as using unique sustainable development strategies to developor completed industrial transformation. Singapore is one of thedeveloped countries nowadays that develop their economy successfully withoutthe high depletion of natural resources. Singapore is a small city with 719.
9km2 but densely populated by 560.7 million (as of 2016). Singaporebecame independent from Malaysia in 1965. This incident has gave rise tomultitude of problems.
Examples like lack of natural resources and space due tothe fact that it is a small island, unemployment of citizens because of thelack of job opportunity, which formed a lot of slums (areas where it is poorand crowded) in the country. Also, large part of the aqua area, includingrivers and ponds, have turn into open sewers that runs only polluted water. Inorder for the country to develop in this difficult situation, the governmentfocused development on 4 key areas, namely “Sustainable economy”, “sustainableliving environment”, “ensuring sustainable development for our people” and”contributing to international collaboration”. Sustainable Development Strategies in Singapore The reality that Singapore isrunning out of its own natural resources forced the country to have no choicebut to develop as a self-sufficient country. They have to produce the productsand services by themselves or import them, and also to make wide choice whenconsuming those limited resources. Just like any countries in the world,Singapore started their economic development by pollutive industries, and inrecent years they step by step switch to use environmental friendly energy soruceto lower the pollutant emission rate.
Comparing to some other developedcountries, Singapore started acting on the transformation at a earlier time. Atpresent, Singapore is one of the top 20 most carbon efficient countries in theworld. On the other hand, by signing the Paris Agreement, Singapore agreed toreduce emission by 36 per cent when comparing to the emission data in 2005 by2030. Singapore planned to introduce carbon tax system in 2019 which meanspeople or industries that produce much emission will need to pay for theirpollution. This policy is believed to encourage more companies to switch to useenvironmental friendly energy sources and reduce pollutive production strategies. On the other hand, Singapore alsoworked on city planning level to design sustainable towns within the countryusing smart technologies by city planners. Smart technology is harnessing informationcommunication technology, the interconnection of materials and human livingstyle and get deep insights into scientific data, so as to develop smartapplications that support the implementation of sustainable policies. Singapore implementthese technologies into different parts ofthe town which carries out different functions.
A country could be explained asa human body, where green areas such as parks and countryside are like lungswhich cleans air and balanced the carbon dioxide content inside to avoid harmfuleffects; roads are like blood circulation system and transport importantsubstances, as well as removing pollutants from parts around the body. On thesurface of the city, several types of sensors are set up which collectdifferent data of the current situation of the city for the town to learn andadapt. These data help architects to design whereto put outdoor infrastructure, for example to put roof gardens and solar panelsin places with sufficient solar radiation. All this info helps architects todesign the town so that it is functional. One of the example of town developedusing smart technology is the Punggol-eco town. It is a town selected by Singapore’sHousing and Development Board to be developed into the first eco-town in thecountry.
The Eco town focuses on multiple initiatives for sustainable livingthrough effective energy, water, and waste management. Data such as wind flow,solar irrigation, traffic, sound and humidity are collected using specific types of instruments set indifferent distinct parts of the town. At the beginning, these data help cityplanners to decide where to put different kinds of infrastructure, such asplaces with high solar radiation intensity to put solar panels for electricitygeneration or grow plants at those area to ensure they can grow healthily. Cityor town planner learn about the current situation of the town every day andhelp the town to adapt, improve so to achieve higher sustainability level. Another sustainable action of Singapore is its watermanagement system.
Singapore’s Water Policy is also known as the ‘Four NationalTaps’. They draw water from mainly four sources. The first one is importingwater from Malaysia through the Johor River. Second one is setting up 17 local reservoirsto collect and store rainwater running through rivers, ponds, drains andcanals. The third one is highly purified reclaimed NEWater produced by treatingcontaminated water to remove impurities and reuse them.
The last one is by treatingseawater. Its product is also known as desalinated water. The Word Health Organizationhas also recognized Singapore as one of the few countries nowadays with tapewater suitable for drinking without extra filtration process.