Subcultures social embracement (Rubin, 2002). As well as this,

Subcultures started to emerge post-second war
Britain, with the emergence of the ‘Teddy Boys’ and ‘Teddy girls’; this was the
start of youths creating their own new cultural freedom (Subcultures list,
n.d.). According to Gelder (2005), subcultures are a collective of people
straying from the mainstream in a non-normative way, by having specific
interests, tastes, views and attitudes in their lives; Hebdige (1979) states
that subcultures are ‘subordinate groups’ within society. Williams (1965) also
explains that people who are part of subcultures lead a shared lifestyle, for
example they don’t just share specific values – it’s a whole way of life. In
more detail Haenfler (2014) tells us the common ground shared between most
subcultures; they all share specific vocabulary anything from slang or codes;
share music and fashion interests (this is the easiest way to identify someone as
part of a subculture); shared history and values that aren’t shared with the
rest of society; they also offer a social support system with each other,
offering a safe space community where someone feels cared for and valued. Within
the mainstream society, subcultures link very closely to other social groupings,
from social movements – animal rights and feminists to countercultures –
hippies and queer cultures (Haenfler, 2014).


The modern-day youth subcultural society doesn’t
appear as black and white as it used to be, Petridis (2014) says that there are
only two dominant subcultures recognisable to foreigners out of the culture;
that being ‘metalheads’ and ’emos’ (Petridis, 2014). However, Barret (2017)
argues that within the gay male community there appears to be subcultures
within it rather than it being one individual subculture; few main ones are,
Drag Queens, Radical Faeries, Bears, Circuit Boys and Leathermen. These
subcultures mentioned (apart from drag queens) are known as sexual subcultures
that Western homosexuals have developed (Rubin, 2002). These social or sexual
subcultures have acted as a reclassification for the stigmatism that was stuck
to the homosexual community (due to the aids epidemic) by shifting
homosexuality from being a medical issue to a social embracement (Rubin, 2002).
As well as this, gay subcultures may have their own sub-subcultures, for
example drag queen subculture contains numerous of diverse sub-subcultures.
Them being: glam queens, trash queens, clown queens and street queens
(Barret, 2017).

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2.2 Objective 2: To develop an
understanding of drag culture through 1960 –                         2017


The 1960’s was the decade in which drag
culture had managed to establish a concrete infrastructure as an art form (Boyer,
2016). Racca (2017) explains that in the early 60’s a man had to be wearing at
least three items of male clothing for him not to be arrested for being in drag.
It wasn’t until the Stonewall Riots in 1969 when drag queens started to fight
for their rights (Boyer, 2016). Barrett (2017) says that the Stonewall Riots
was a symbolic period for gay culture and that it marks historical territory
for the gay rights movement


During this time drag’s culture was
formed through Drag Balls; these events were when women, however dominantly
men, cross-dressed and took part in theatrical performance and fashion shows
(Haggerty, 2000). The ball culture was made up of limited number of categories;
most queens impersonated Las Vegas
showgirls (Buckner, n.d.). Along with the Drag Ball events in the 60s, the
community obtained unique values and social structures. Many of the queens involved weren’t able to freely express their gender
identities or sexual orientations with their biological families, a lot of them
had been kicked out on to the streets because of their sexuality (Paris Is
Burning, 2009). This is where the drag community formed their own families or
‘houses’ (Herzog, Rollins, 2012). A lot of queer youths had to join balls at a
young age so that they had access to a safe space and sometimes live within the
houses. The drag houses were ran by ‘mothers’ either butch queens
(gay men) or femme queens
(transgender women) or ‘fathers’ who are mainly butch queens
or butches (transgender men); the parent of the
house acted as a guardian for their ‘children’ (Bailey, 2011), they are still
going today. In Paris Is Burning
Pepper LaBeija describes the houses as “a group of human beings in a mutual
bond” (Paris Is Burning, 2009)


Drag and ball-culture didn’t thrive
completely until the 1980s and 90s (Hash tag drag, 2013). Paris is Burning is a documentary that, explores, studies and
depicts every aspect of drag from the 60s – 90s. Within it Pepper LaBejia,
Doran Corey, Angie Xtravaganza and Willi Ninja are four Legendary Queens and
‘house mothers’ who feature within the documentary. Doran Corey explains that
the reason that drag progressed was due to the Drag Balls. As drag culture
reached the 80s, the categories had become so fluid that there was a category
that everyone would fit into; a few of the categories were: high fashion eveningwear,
town and country, fem-realness, and many
more. Willi Ninja also shares that the dance ‘Voguing’ came from ball-culture;
it came from queens throwing shade in the form
of dance, and whoever had the better moves was throwing the best shade. The name of the dance came from the magazine Vogue, as some of the moves were poses
from it (Paris Is Burning, 2009). In 1989 Susanne Bartsch held an event called
the Love Ball, which was the first big Aids fundraiser (Maciejowska, 2017).


As the Drag Ball period was
flourishing, along came RuPaul. RuPaul Charles’ career started in 1982 when he
sent a picture of himself to The American
Music Show – a TV programme in which he hoped to appear on air; it didn’t
take much time until he was on the series frequently with his band RuPaul and
the U-Hauls (Biography, 2017). In 1989 RuPaul earned the title and crown ‘The
Queen Of Manhattan’ following this he achieved global fame with his first hit
song, Supermodel (You Better Work); as well as reaching number 7 in the UK
charts with his duet with Sir Elton John (RuPaul, n.d.). In 2009, RuPaul elevated
drag by premiering ‘RuPaul’s Drag Race’ to society through television,
following that came 11 seasons, three spinoff shows and RuPaul’s DragCon (Fernandez,
2017). The show has even become the most efficacious LGBTQ reality TV program
ever (Nichols, 2017). He’s also stated himself on ‘RuPaul’s Drag Race All Stars’
season two, “I marketed subversive drag, to a 100 million mother fuckers of the
world” (RuPaul’s Drag Race All Stars Season 2, 2016).


2.3 Objective 3: To assess
how men are represented within drag culture


culture tends to be dominated by gay men dressing in women’s clothing,
otherwise known as Drag Queens – the term ‘drag’ has been around the
performance art industry for centuries; it wasn’t until the gay population
embraced this culture, that the term ‘queen’
(which is an anti-slang word to describe a effeminate man) was added (Conger,
n.d.). However, this hasn’t always been the case, straight men also take part
in drag, and they label themselves as ‘female impersonators’ or a ‘female
illusionists ‘(r, 2015


drag culture, gay men are represented highly amongst the community. However, there
isn’t one clear representation, as drag queens absorb characteristics from both
LGBTQ+ and heterosexual communities in order to create their persona on stage (Greaf,
2015). Their performances to most audiences, tends to represent queries of
their own views on their personal gender identity (Rupp, Taylor, & Shapiro,
2010). Also, male Drag Queens are heavily represented through the show ‘RuPauls
Drag Race’.


men within drag culture have existed longer than gay men. During the1600s and
time prior to this, teenage boys were cast to play female characters
(Anagnoson, 2011). Still to this date, this is the case with Kabuki theatre in
Japan; Kabuki theatre are all male actors, in which female personification is
classed as an art form (Haggerty, 2000). With Kabuki theatre being 400 years
old, men still hold a dominant representation in this area (Martin, 2010).


2.3b Objective 3b: To
generate a better understanding of women within drag culture


Women performers have found it
difficult to be accepted into Drag Culture; Scriver (2016) explains that one
women was told to get “the fuck out of the club” after having a drink poured on
her head just because she was a women in drag . There have even been offensive
names generated from a minority of the community such as “Faux-queen” (Newell, 2017). “Bio-queens”
within the scene have even been accused as seeing drag as a “novelty” instead
of appreciating its historical heritages importance as a social tool for the
better of the LGBTQ+ community.


Controversially, amongst the community,
some queens are embracing the fact that women want to take part in this art
form. Gander (2016) explains that Mrs Kasha Davis (a contestant from RuPaul’s
Drag race) invited her to piece together a drag persona and perform on stage at
a show in which she hosted. Lady Gaga represents women within drag culture; on season
nine, episode one of ‘RuPauls Drag Race’, she opens up about what drag means,
“Drag for me has been an opportunity to leave myself when I didn’t wanna be me,
I felt completely out of place in high school” (RuPauls Drag Race season 9,
2017). RuPaul also commented about Lady gaga “She felt right at home” around
the “Drag Race” queens (Rudolph, 2017).


Within this culture there are also Drag
kings; these performers are “exaggerated male characters” portraying
hyper-masculinity (Honan, 2017). McMahon argues that females’ involvement
within drag is classed as “Rhetorical Drag” even though it is still gender
impersonation it allegedly started when women’s narratives were very captive
(McMahon, 2008).



2.4 Objective 4: The
public’s interpretation of drag culture


The way in which drag culture is now perceived
compared to how it used to be perceived in the 60s – 90s, has progressed. During
this period of drag culture the whole gay community didn’t accept it – even
though both sides were fighting for the same equal rights amongst the
heteronormative society. Gelder (2017) tells us in an interview with Andrew
Lumsden what it was like for him in that time period as a gay man; a
gay-friendly pub within Notting Hill, London, had put forward a policy where people
in drag would not be served, which he almost certainly knew was put into place
at the request of the police. He even explains that it was common to be
targeted and bullied by the police and by the rest of society for talking about
who you’ve met or liked, if it related to homosexuality you’d be targeted – he
even stated that the police were worse (Gelder, 2017). The 70s showed gender
norms that appeared in films boundaries being opened up – ‘The Rocky Horror Picture Show’, even if this was shown through an
antagonist role (The Rocky Horror Picture Show, 2006). In the 80s, the public
were also showcased drag through popular films, with drag being the
protagonist. Tootsie and Mrs Doubtfire started a lust for drag that was only
ever going to flourish in the public eye; even though these versions of drag
weren’t showcasing a sense of identity or breaking down gender, the fact they
were both profoundly heterosexulised and comedic drag – it brought drag into a
more positive light to the public eye (Stone, 2016).  .


In the modern day world drag is now
something that is globally known about and appreciated. It’s still a platform
that performers can freely express themselves through the art form, challenge
gender norms and political views. Now with the likes of RuPaul and his drag
race winning two Primetime Emmy awards in 2016 and 2017 for Outstanding Host
for a Reality or Reality-Competition program; an OFTA Televison Award, Gold
Derby TV Award and the Critics’ Choice Award for again Best Reality Show Host
(IMDb, 2018), it’s hard to say that he’s not brought a positive representation
of drag into society. The show also helps brings Drag Queen contestants on the
show, further into the mainstream, so they too, can also help bring drag
further into the public eye. The four finalists of RuPaul’s Drag Race season 9
are all reverberating each other’s statements in a ‘Vice’ article that drag is
heading the right way in terms of becoming more accepted and embraced by the
mainstream and the impacts that’s having on a straighter and younger audience
(as well as the LGBTQ+ audience) is going to have a positive impact for the
future of drag culture (Sasson, 2017). Even terms such as “throwing shade” and
“yaas” have come from drag culture into the mainstream (Sasson, 2017).


2.5 Objective 5: Gender
identity representations within drag culture


Whether you’re a Drag Queen or King,
drag culture tackles gender identity to be quite fluid, meaning there are no boundaries
of what it means to be male or female, masculine and feminine (Blodgett, n.d.).
For example Drag Queens or bio-queens
portray hyper-femininity, which is when performing within a feminine gender
character persona (Matschiner, Murnen, 1999); and Drag Kings or ‘bio-kings’ render a hyper-masculinity
adherence when performing masculinity consistently of the “real man”
(Bengtsson, 2015).


Within drag culture comes many
different gender identity representations with it being part of the LGBTQ+
community. Different gender identifications include, Homosexual, Heterosexual, Bi-gender, Transgender (Male or female),
Gender-Queer, Butch, Cisgender, Genderfluid, Agender, Femme, Intergender, and
Nonbinary (Kelly, 2016). Though, drag
culture tends to blur gender binary (Blodgett, n.d.)  Within drag, there only appears to be issues
relating to drag queens and transgender women, however this isn’t the dominant
representation between the two. On Big Brother Season 14, there were two
contestants; India Willoughby who is a Transgender woman and Shane Janek who is
a Drag Queen called Courtney Act who appeared on RuPaul’s Drag Race season 6.
In the house on episode 6, India states that “Yano how some people are scared
of clowns? Drag queens do that for me – just being honest” (Big Brother Season
14, 2018). Later on in the episode Courtney (Shane) says to India, “Today there’s
a lot of trans-people who wanna break away from the LGBT”, she then goes on to
talk about how, since India has had her sex change from a man to a women, that
she is now benefitting from the community. However, India’s response is that
she has nothing to do with LGBTQ+ at all (Big Brother season 14, 2018).You could…yes as these are views that are out there…


3.0 Methodology


research was conducted through literature reviews in order to broaden knowledge
and understanding of key issues relating to the objectives. The primary
research was to investigate how men and women are represented in Drag Culture,
as well as how they are perceived by the general public that are outside of the
community itself. In addition, a better understanding was necessary to see what
different gender representations within drag culture are and if this has an effect
on how they perceive drag. For this study the two methods of research have
taken place in order gain a deeper knowledge, one being the online focus group
and one being the questionnaire.


focus group was set up on social media allowing people to openly get involved
if they wish; this method collected data in a group interactive way from a
specific topic (Watson M, Peacock S, Jones D, 2006); thus topic being female
drag queens. However, this could have caused ethical issues by using this
particular method, a result of heated exchanges between participants and the
potential of the topic changing meant the results could have been unreliable (Boydell,
Fergie, McDaid, Hilton, 2014). To avoid these ethical issues emerging, the
focus group was frequently monitored to ensure the group stays on topic, also
as it was on Facebook, any comments that were malicious, or starting to get
heated were removed and user potentially blocked. Controversially, the good
weighs out the bad as reaching out to the audience in this way hopefully gathered
a wide range of responses and also allowed peoples’ passion for drag culture
come through. There are also the identities of people who take part that cause
ethical issues, however no names will be used and will be blurred out, if not
erased, when it comes to analysing the results. 


questionnaire was anonymous, meaning the researcher was not able to identify
the respondents (Vaus, 2002). This did mean that participants were able to
answer the questions dishonestly, as the person who is analysing the data
collected wouldn’t have any idea that someone has been untruthful, meaning the
results could be unreliable. The questionnaire was sent out to various social
media outlets, which may skew the results, as the average user age it initially
reached would be dominantly 18 – 24; however, if the initial audience shared it,
it had potential to reach all age ranges. As the survey was online, it ensured that
the questionnaire could be filled out easily and quickly. Callegaro, Manfreda
and Vehovar (2015) state that the average mail questionnaire is around a 50 a day
turnover, whereas the online roughly has a 3-day turnover. In addition to the
questionnaire being online people could complete it in their own time and personal
space, hopefully this should have resulted in honest responses.


report tackled a mixed method approach from both a focus group and
questionnaire; Creswell and Clark (2017) argue that by not combining the two of
both quantitative and qualitative research, can affect the results – this is
because qualitative is needed in order to understanding the context and hearing
voices directly from responses, whereas quantitative blocks any personal views
and opinions from affecting the results. Meaning that the strengths of one
method is the others weakness (Creswell, Clark, 2017). For the quantitative research,
it was gathered from both of my primary research areas and used due to it being
easy to compare, analyse and spot trends. For the qualitative data collected a
thematic analysis method was used to extract dominant themes of the research.