Starting medical and engineering fields. [2] These days many

Starting from the first peg legs and hand hooks, and ending with
the modern robotic and  myoelectric
prosthetics, the prosthetics were highly improved and developed. The ancient
Egyptians were the first culture who have used the prosthetic technology.1
They have made the prosthetic limbs of fiber.1

Greville Chester Toe was made up of cartonnage and contact onto the foot in
fashion to Egypt sandals. 2 Cartonnage
is a material comparable to paper and is made of layers of linen or papyrus
covered in plaster. 2 The purpose from this
prosthetics was to maintain physical wholeness in both their lives on Earth and
in the afterlife.

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Scientists think that most of these prosthetics in the past were
not functional prosthetic and they were used only for cosmetic reasons,
although a new discovery of a prosthetic toe in an Egyptian mummy says that it
could be a functional prosthetic.1

In 1858, an old artificial leg was discovered at Capua, Italy. This
artificial leg was made of bronze and iron, with a wooden core. It is dating to
about 300 B.C.1

Ambroise Paré who was working in the French Army as a surgeon is
the father of modern prosthetic surgery.1 At 1529 he popularized new amputation procedures to the medical community.1
At 1536 he had created prostheses  for
upper and lower amputees.1 He had also created  an above-knee device which was adjustable and
had fixed position, actually this device had a lot of features that are used in
now in medical devices.1 This above-knee device is shown is figure


1: The above-knee device that has been created by Ambroise Paré.1


After the World War II, The needing of
developing new Prosthetic has been increased.1
The government of United States of America has made a contract with companies
to develop prosthetic.1 Today’s modern devices have less weight,
and consists of different types of materials with modern microprocessors and
computer chips.1  Prostheses
become more realistic by covering it with silicone to be able to mimic the
appearance of real limbs to provide amputees with the most functional devices
and help them to return to the normal lifestyle.1

devices are common in both medical and engineering fields. 2 These days many parts of
a body can be replaced by a prosthetic. 2  Manufacturing process of prosthetic limbs
becomes precise task to choose a certain material that fit particular needs of
a user’s and improving their quality of life which they can’t achieve their
tasks due to their disability.

2- Myoelectric Prosthetic:

2: Examples of different types of  Myoelectric hands

DMC Plus. b.Touchbionics iLimb. .3


In 1940s and because of the highly development in computer devices and the algorithms science, Myoelectric upper limbs prosthesis has been developed.
3 A Myoelectric
prosthesis is a special type of prosthesis which uses the electrical tension
generated by a muscle contraction as order to move. 3

Amputee’s will be able to control
prosthesis using one muscle group to open a hand and the other muscle to close
the hand, some advanced systems could provide movement in wrist. 3 Some different
types of Myoelectric prosthesis are shown in figure 2.

In the mid-1970s a special pattern has been
developed to analyze the useful information that is presented in the
electromyographic (EMG). 3 This information could be used to make more movements in different degrees. This
technique is not widely used these days because it needs high processing power. 3 Some disadvantages of this prosthesis is during daily living the arm
could be affected by several changes, like re-positioning of the electrode which
could affect the accuracy of pattern recognition. 3

3: A
simple illustration of the control strategies for Myoelectric prosthesis.


The advantages of changing intensity of muscular contractions has been
used to design a type of this prosthesis which known as on/off control or crisp
control prosthesis. 3 An
Activation thresholds determine the actions of the Myoelectric prosthesis. 3 For example if the muscle slightly contracted
the hand Myoelectric
prosthesis will close. If the muscle strongly contracted the hand Myoelectric prosthesis will
open. If no contraction occurred in the muscle the prosthesis will be slightly contract. Figure 3 shows a better illustration for this example. More movements in different degrees could be evolved if different muscle group and more electrodes have
been used. 3



X-Actions from

Neuroscientists for a long time have interested in using brain
signals to control artificial devices. x123 One of the most
important technique which is used to do this call hybrid brain–machine
interfaces (HBMIs). x123 “The word ‘hybrid’ reflects the fact
that these applications rely on continuous interactions between living brain
tissue and artificial electronic or mechanical devices”.x123 The
HBMIs combine two types of application, the first type of HBMIs is a human-made
devices which generated electrical signals and transmit it to the brain tissue in
order to transmit some specific type of sensory information to mimic a
real  human nerve
and sensory function. x123 An important example for this
type is an auditory prosthesis. x123 The second type of HBMIs is a
the real-time and processing of the brain activities to control artificial
devices. An important example for this type would be the using of neural
signals from the motor cortex to control the movements of a prosthetic arm or
leg in real time. x123 A general description and organization of a
type 2 HBMI is shown in figure 2 .The applications that require alternate
interaction between the brain and artificial devices will have both type 1 and
2 HBMIs. x123

















A general description and organization of
the type 2 HBMI .x123


Unfortunately, the common non-
invasive electrophysiological methods to measure the electrical activity of the
neurons in cortex, such as scalp EEG recordings, lack the required resolution
which needed to control a robotic arm in real time. x123 For this
reason, multichannel intracranial recorders of brain activity are surgically
implanted to provide a raw brain signals to use it in the HBMIs. x123
It is important to design an appropriate instrumentation for recording and
processing the raw brain signals in real time. x123 This could be
done using VLSI chips, VLSI is defined as : “very large-scale integration,
the process of integrating hundreds of thousands of components on a single
silicon chip.”x123 This neurochip must be small to
be implanted it in patients and it must work with replaceable batteries.x123  It must be also wireless.
x123  A prototype of this neurochip is shown in
figure 3.
















3: A prototype of neurochip for processing brain signals. x123


After the processing and analyzing of signal was done using the
neurochip, the neurochip sends the data to robotic prosthetic processer, using
this data and by using some specific mathematical algorithm, the robotic
prosthetic processer compute the three-dimensional movement and start to move.
x123   Figure
4 shows a brief explanation of neurorobotic prosthetic working method.














4:A brief explanation of neurorobotic prosthetic working method. x123













5: Flex-foot is used in running competition. x321

In 1984 the first Flex-Foot was invented. x321
 The purpose of this developed prosthesis is to
make better rehabilitation for an amputee and make them able to run and to let them compete in running competition.
x321  A running
competition for amputees is shown in figure 5. x321 This
prosthesis is made from carbon fibre which is light-weight and strong material. x558
x321 The Flex-Foot was designed in a
way that makes it gives more deflection, which improves the mechanism of
running. x321   Like a spring, the Flex-Foot can store kinetic energy from the
amputee steps’ as potential energy, which help the amputee to run and jump more easily.
x321This type of prosthesis has obviously evolved in the last years. x321 A brief development history of the
Flex-foot is shown in figure 6. x321

6: The development history
of the Flex-foot. x321


The Flex-Foot is better than normal prosthetic, because it provides
higher walking and running speeds and consume less energy.
x321 The producer offers 18 different types of this prosthesis, every
type is different from the other in the stiffness. x321  The right type is chosen according to the
weight of the athlete. x321