Special then these cells spread in different ways as

Special Assignment


Small Cell Lung Cancer/ Small-cell
carcinoma/oat-cell carcinoma

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Lung cancer is one of the deadly disease where the
patient survives only for 2-4 months without treatment (says Medline Plus). It is
stated that 15 % of lung cancers belongs to the small cell type. This cancer
type spreads rapidly and create devastation in the body. This disease is
included in the list of the top ten incurable disease. Hence, it is important to find a solution to this disease.

cell lung cancer are of three types:

Many different types of cells are
involved in this type of cancer. The cancer cells multiplies and then these cells spread in different ways as well
as different locations in the body which you cannot predict. Depending upon the
kinds of cells found in the cancer and how the cells are viewed under a
microscope, the names for the types of small cell lung cancer are given.

Small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer).
Mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma.
Combined small cell carcinoma.

The various symptoms of small cell lung
cancer are coughing up blood, unintentional weight loss, shortness of breath,
wheezing, and chest pain. Poor appetite, fever, hoarseness, difficulty
swallowing and facial swelling can also lead to this type of lung cancer. Also,
it is seen in some cases, it can lead to weakness and changes in the voice. Smoking,
most commonly in heavy smokers
and rarely in non-smokers are the reasons behind this type of cancer.

For most patients with small cell lung cancer, the current
treatments are not capable of curing of the cancer (Morabito et al., 2014).

The early detection and
treatment options depend on the various situations of the disease: 

The stage of the cancer (whether it is located in the chest cavity
only or has multiplied and spread to other places in the body).
The patient’s gender and general health.
The blood level of lactate
dehydrogenase (LDH), it is a substance that plays a role in finding in the
blood that may indicate cancer when the level is higher than normal.

There are solutions to
manage the symptoms of small cell type lung cancer like chemotherapy medications
such as etopside, along with radiation treatment but these does not help to cure
it. MedlinePlus says that surgery is the only way for a few people as small
cell lung cancer typically spreads by the time it is discovered.


Humans have questions, Nature has answers.

Lectins are present everywhere in nature and are detected in many foods. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins, macromolecules that are
highly specific for sugar derivatives (Yau et
al., 2015). At the cellular and
molecular level, these lectins has the function of recognition and also play role
in the recognition process of biological molecules like cells, carbohydrates,
and proteins. Lectins attaches and carry out the binding mechanism of
bacteria and some viruses to their desired targets.


Glycoproteins or
glycoproteins contains carbohydrate moiety on its cell surface to which the
lectins bind. They possess the property to agglutinate certain animal cells
like RBCs and also precipitate glycoconjugates. These lectins can lyse the
red blood cells if the proportional amount of RBCs and lectin sample are mixed
together. This property of lysis by lectins can help us to predict that the
lectins bind to the carbohydrates on the cell surface and thus aid in killing
the harmful cell.


Legume plants contain lectins
which are used to study in order to understand the molecular basis of how
proteins recognize their target carbohydrates, because they are easy to isolate
from the source and have a wide variety of sugar derivatives associated with
them on their surfaces. The crystal structures of legume lectins
which were studied using X-ray crystallography have led to a detailed research
of how atoms interact with each other between carbohydrates and proteins.


Lectins can bind these
cancerous cells and thus stop them to amplify in the body. There are few commercially available lectins that have
been used often in affinity
chromatography technique for purifying glycoproteins. In
general, proteins can be purified and characterised by means of ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, affinity
chromatography that
will help us to purify the protein once they are isolated from the plant
source. Further, binding to its carbohydrate structure of the targeted ligands
can be studied by Isothermal Calorimetry where the thermodynamics results tells
us the in-detail binding information and also the technique of UV-Visible
spectrometry. These results tell us how effectively the binding is occurring
and how much molecules are involved in this binding process.


Ammonium sulfate
precipitation is
one of the most commonly technique used for large and laboratory scale purification
and fractionation of the desired proteins. This technique is used to separate
proteins by manipulating their solubility by the presence of a high salt
concentration like ammonium sulfate. Dialysis is the process of separating large molecules from the
small molecules in buffer solution by the diffusion process through a semipermeable
membrane, such as dialysis tubing. Dialysis is a common laboratory
technique that is used in the day-to-day laboratory techniques to purify them.


chromatography is a method of separating biochemical mixtures
based on a highly specific interaction between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, or receptor and ligand (Walkup
et al. 2014). It is one type of chromatographic laboratory
technique used for purifying biological molecules in a mixture by
exploring its molecular properties. Biological macromolecules like the enzymes
and other proteins, interact with other molecules with high specificity through
various types of bonds and interaction. 


titration calorimetry (ITC) is a physical technique used to determine the thermodynamic parameters of
interactions in solution like enthalpy, entropy (Duff et al., 2011). It
is used to study the binding of small molecules or ligands to larger macromolecules (proteins, DNA etc.)


Mass spectrometry techniques like ESI and
MALDI can aid in determining the structure of the protein so that this information
can help us in the binding study (Lossl et al. 2016). Further the binding
mechanism can also be seen using Scanning electron microscopy that portrays the
surface of the cell binding. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images
of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact
with atoms in the sample,
producing various signals that contain information about the sample’s surface topography and composition.