Socio-economic:The economy of the North-East is basically rooted in products like tea, petroleum and forest produce. Agriculture is the predominant means of livelihood for bulk of the population and land is limited. Immigration means greater competition especially when immigrants are willing to work for cheaper wages.There is also the fear of being outnumbered by immigrants as has happened in Tripura. There is already hostility between different states of the Northeast with Nagaland already having called for a separate country. Immigration only means a greater dilution of indigenous culture.Political: According to a study, out of the 292 Assembly Constituencies in West Bengal, Bangladeshi immigrants can determine the outcome of ,polls in as many as 52 Constituencies.
Besides, in another 100 Assembly Constituencies they can influence the poll outcome.Since the political clout enjoyed by the Bangladeshi migrant community is so significant in Assam, West Bengal, Tripura and Bihar, even the mainstream political parties do not have the courage to even acknowledge the problem, much less tackle it effectively. Most of the political parties play what is often termed as “Vote Bank” politics with an eye towards Bangladeshi Muslim vote. Law and order implications: Influx of Bangladeshi migrants resulting in alienation of tribal lands, unemployment, ‘vote bank’ politics, fears of being reduced to a political minority in one’s own state gradually plays upon the minds of the native population which in turn can lead to severe social strain and consequent law and order problems.
Fear of inundation by an alien population led to a 7 year long agitation to press for identification and deportation of Bangladeshi aliens. The agitation burst into extreme violence in 1983 when tribals massacred over 1700 Bangladeshi Muslims at Nellie village where the former had been alienated in large numbers from their lands. Besides, this agitation against ‘foreigners’ was the prime motivating factors for the establishment of United Liberation Front of Assam which has been carrying a violent secessionist campaign for last 20 years. Assam has witnessed a string of incidents of communal tension in last 20 years which had relatively been unknown before. There is similar tension in WB and Tripura too.
Black market- Apart from immigrants a large numbers smugglers regularly cross the porous border along West Bengal into India engaging in smuggling goods and livestock from India into Bangladesh to avoid high tariff imposed on some Indian goods by Bangladesh government. Bangladeshi women and girls are also trafficked to India through Middle East for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. It is estimated that 27,000 Bangladeshis have been forced into prostitution in India according to The Centre for Women and Children Studies estimated.
According to CEDAW report, 1% of foreign prostitutes in India and 2.7% of prostitutes in Kolkata are from Bangladesh. Import of islamic terrorism- The cadres of Jamaat-e-Islami, a conservative islamic party of Bangladesh have been active in Manipur and the increase in the numbers of Islamic groups and organizations in Assam is directly linked to the illegal migrants from Bangladesh.
The mushroom growth of madrasas in West Bengal and some of the north-eastern states is partially attributable to major population changes brought about by illegal immigration from Bangladesh. There are suggestions that the Pakistani outfit Harkat-ul-Jihad al-lslami (HUJAI) has a branch in Bangladesh and these fundamentalists are believed to be active in support of various Islamic causes including Kashmir and in the attack on the American Cultural Center in Kolkata on January 22, 2002.