Scotland conquered and then at once thrown away.” (MacLean,

Scotland is an antiquity because the history of the nation started its journey in the year of AD 81 with the Roman historian Tacitus. Tacitus took over Roman Province of Britain, in other words, southern Scotland. After conquering the land, his father-in-law, Cnaeus Julius Agricola, wanted to take over northern England in AD 83.

Tacitus stated, “Britain conquered and then at once thrown away.” (MacLean, 10). With this in mind, Scotland enhanced in land and population by defeating the Caledonians at the Battle of Mons Graupius. Emperor Hadrian builds a wall from Solway to Tyne to show sovereignty until Lollius Urbicus constructs the Antonine Wall from Forth to Clyde around AD 121 to AD 131. However, in AD 163, the Romans take over Trimontium and Hadrian’s Wall. Anyways, in AD 208, Emperor Severus builds a Naval base at Cramond because he had multiple victories. Thus, after his death, the Romans abandoned that Antonine Wall and evacuate their bases. As a result, Scotland never became part of the Roman Empire.

Around AD 430, Scotland was divided into four races including the Picts, Britons, Scots, and Angles. Each race converted themselves to Christianity and a man named St. Columba reestablishes and consolidates a monastery because the Scots were suffering a battle with the Picts over the loss of their king. Since this day on and forward, Scotland organizes a monarchy with different rulers including the Duncans, Macbeth, the Williams, Malcolm, Davids, James Queen Margaret, and many other royals.

In an attempt to maintain Scotland, each ruler died with recognition. For example, Robert the Bruce and Edward III signed the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton for Scottish independence in AD 1328. Bruce, being the hero of Scotland, unfortunately, died from leprosy at Cardross in June 1329, yet, he was recognized for his actions and attitude for his country (MacLean, 44).

Another significant battle during Scotland’s Second War of Independence called the Battle of Halidon Hill, was an important event where Berwick was conquered by the English. With Britain’s success, Scotland lost part of its territory, thus, gained independence in AD 1333 (MacLean, 46).Now, in the 15th century, there were more positive events including the foundation of St. Andrews University in AD 1411 and Glasgow University in AD 1451.

Plus, the Lordship of the Isles was abolished leaving the title to the crown to be withdrawn in AD 1493.In the 16th century, Scotland was in chaos. James IV and many Scots were killed at Flodden, the Court of Session was established in AD 1532, James V died later after James IV, Parliament created laws over the Protestant Reformation, and James VI passes the Golden Act in AD 1592 to recognize the power of Presbyterianism. James VI states, “This I must say for Scotland…here I sit and govern it with my pen. I write and it is done, and by a Clark of the Council, I govern Scotland now, which others could not do by the sword” (MacLean, 109).

He then becomes James I of England under the Union of the Crowns in AD 1603. Around AD 1638, the Scottish Covenanters revolt against Charles I because he gave a chance to the English, their enemies. This lead to two Bishops’ Wars and three English Civil Wars from AD 1639 to AD 1649. As a result, Southern Scotland engaged by the English Commonwealth’s New Model Army and lead to a victory in the Battle of Worcester in AD 1651 over the Royalist field army.

Later on, there was no military opposition to rule from London.The Jacobite Uprising first began in AD 1688. The Jacobites were supporters from the Stuart’s Royal House. It all started when William of Orange landed in England with an army (MacLean, 139). James VII went to France and recognized William and Mary as King and Queen.

In contrary, those in the Highlands, or the Jacobites who followed their monarch, favored him to be a Dutch usurper (MacLean, 139). This created tension and under William’s control, he sent troops to stop the Jacobites. Even though the Jacobites lost, they continued to fight at the Battle of the Boyne to end James’s Irish campaign. The government later issues with their military strategies because of King William and the Master of Stair, John Dalrymple, want to establish a similar Jacobite clan to take over the Highlands. However, the king had to deal with the Lowlands and England too, therefore, William was forced to discharge with the services of his Secretary of State.

Referring back to the Jacobites, Prince Charles Edward Stuart, James’s elder son, noticed their clan had increased over time. Therefore, he was prepared to attack at Holyrood. The English arrived with a defeat from the Battle of Prestonpans.Charles later believed that the Catholic would be useful allies, but declined.

Rather, another English army followed him, which was led by King George II, Duke of Cumberland, into Scotland. For instance, the textbook states, “It is certain enough that Barrisdale entered into terms with the Duke of Cumberland, that he received a protection for a certain limited time, and that he touched money; but whether or not he was sincere in the design of seizing the Prince…” (Paton, 82). In April 1745, the Prince decided to fight the English at Culloden Moor which brought an uprise to the Jacobites because his role was to invade Great Britain.

In addition, he wanted to fight the Hanoverian, or the “usurper”, King George II. In 1746, Prince Charles Edward Stuart was traveling northside to reach Stirling and the army. He met up with an English General named Hawley and Highlanders began to attack. Charles did not reach his objective, yet, he continues to move up north.In the meantime, the Government sent out additional troops to assist Charles and the small army. Plus, while marching, Prince Charles notices that Cumberland has a powerful military force, twice in size, who were progressing on Inverness in AD 1746. Charles and the army finally reach to Culloden. He gathered five thousand hungry, ill-equipped Highlanders as well for assistance.

On April 15 or 16, Lord George Murray decided to conquer their campground at night because he believed it would make the battle balanced and fair. Therefore, Highlanders wandered out for defense and returned to their base with a destroyed atmosphere. The Lyon of Mourning states more in detail, “The Prince marched his army in three columns from Culloden Muir to surprise the Duke of Cumberland in his camp at Nairn, ordering at the same time 2000 men to pass the river Nairn and post themselves between Elgin and the camp of the enemy.” (Paton, 102). By daytime, the Highlanders were extremely weak whereas Cumberland’s army was might strong and healthy.

They began to attack and after an hour, the Prince ordered Lord George Murray to provide the command.The Battle of Culloden was structured under Lord Murray’s tactic skill. The left and right sides were the Macdonalds. The middle was the Camerons, Clan Chattan, the Macleans and the Maclachlans.

Thus, the Hanoverians were ready to attack because the Cumberland’s first row broke and took over the second row, many Highlanders died. At the end, the Jacobites and Prince Charles were defeated by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland because a spy lied as an undercover during the 1745 Rebellion. The Prince, disappointed, “retired six miles from the field of battle, and next day arrived at Fort Augustus, where he remained all that day in expectation his troops would have to join’d him.” (Paton, 103).After the Battle of Culloden, or The 45, Prince Charles Edward Stuart escaped the battlefield. During his escape, the government forces were searching for him for months throughout Western Highlands and the Isles. Prince Charles was nearly captured until Flora MacDonald found and saved him.

They discussed and the book quotes, “We then consulted on the immediate danger the Prince was in and could think of no more proper or safe place or expedient than to propose to Miss Flora to convey him to the Isle of Sky, where her mother lived” (Paton, 106). Since then, the Prince chose not to return back into the wilderness.Because of Prince Charles’s decision, Scotland, its peoples, and culture completely changed.

Due to Prince Charles’s absence, the government agreed to make changes. They ended the Jacobites, the Clan System failed, roads and forts increased, and their culture was destroyed including their native language, Gaelic. This has influenced Scotland overall because it impacts society today.As of now, Scotland has avoided violence with England and the Scottish Government has participated in the Scottish National Party.

If the spy did not lie, England could have been all of Scotland and if that happened, then every single event that happened would have been different. For example, World War I would not have occurred. If the past changed, the future would change because history is based on learning from one’s mistake and avoiding them. Therefore, Scotland has experienced multiple events to gain its own independence starting from the Romans to the British. Overall, Scotland continues to be an antiquity just like other countries around the world.