Scientific the specific format and then submitted for publication.

Scientific literature is the main element
of all researches, as it is the only medium for stating the results of
scientific research. The basic purpose of scientific knowledge is to discover
something new or to build a new research on the basis of previous research. The
record of scientific research is available in printed or non-printed form in a
certain field i.e. Book or Journal.

The scientific literature
is categorized in to two basic categories; “Primary Literature” and the “Secondary

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Primary literature describes the “original research”; deprived of any notes
or in other terms, it refers to account of research which is carried out by an
individual or by a group of researchers which is published in a Peer-reviewed scientific journal. These
types of descriptions commonly called
“Research Papers / Journal Papers” which are written in the specific format
and then submitted for publication. Other than this, primary literature also
includes Articles, Dissertations,
Thesis, Conference Proceeding papers, Video recording, Review papers/reports, Manuscript,
Extending abstracts and Patents. Mostly
the primary literature is published in journals, but some of the researches are
published as dissertations or thesis, conference papers and reports. Let’s
start to discuss from Article first, what is actually an article is? An article
is basically to explain the methods and results of original research performed
by the researcher, it can be surveys, experiments, interviews etc. but in all
situations the raw data have been gathered, analyzed by the researcher and then
propose conclusion which is standardized, on the other hand short communication
and rapid communication are also the parts of research article. Now move on to
dissertation, it is comprehensive and detailed form of research where the
researcher describes the whole scenario in depth. Whereas, thesis is similar to
dissertation. Another important paper which is going to discussed that is
conference proceeding paper, it is presented in the international conferences,
national conferences and workshops are considered as primary literature to
obtain feedback from the audience. The video recording also use by the
researchers for recording the experiments accurately and verify their
observations correctly. Moreover the review paper/report highlights the
practical aspects and also it examines the progress in a certain topic, in
short it summarizes the recent knowledge of a topic and creates understanding
and develop interest for the reader. As far as manuscript is concerned it is
unpublished version of a research, and also it is handwritten or the original
text by the researcher. An extending abstract declares the abstract which is an
extract of research means the summary of any paper, mostly readers takes the
whole idea after reading it .Last but not the least, patents are very important
for the researcher because it is an authority or license from the government
for the limited time period.

of Primary Scientific Literature


1. “Materials and Methods”
section and “Results”

2. Use “We” or “I” to describe what was done.

3. Very
specific: mention particular places, organisms, etc.

Papers generally start with an introduction; an overview to set the stage for
the research.



Secondary literature consists on those publications which are based
on primary sources for collecting information. The purpose of this publication
is to summarizing and gathering knowledge in a specific area for other
researchers, so that they can utilize the information accordingly. It includes textbooks, Internet, reviews, handbooks, Magazines,
Newspapers, Newsletters and manuals. The textbook provides the
detailed introduction, identification of research objectives, research
questions, guidelines of research path, collecting relevant information,
interpreting data, analyzes data and develop understanding with the context of
research. The internet is widely use across the world as it is a big source of
gathering data and information, the secondary literature generally comes from
the past researches where the internet plays an important role for acquiring
previous papers. About the reviews, it does not shows an original research,
only focuses on précising the literature. The handbooks tells the deep overview
of research methods and combines both theories and methodologies of qualitative
and quantitative. The magazines are also considered as secondary literature
because the knowledge is taken from different channels and combined at one
place. Appearance wise it looks attractive and may contains pictures and
graphical presentations, general audience is commonly use to read. Another
important kind which possess secondary literature that is newspapers, broadly
use around the world, mostly people choose to study newspaper and get
information from it, as it is supposed a good source of knowledge. Now turn to
describe newsletters, it is basically in printed form which covers the news of
business activities and send through email to all employees, customers and
people who are interested in knowing. The last thing which is also reflects the
secondary literature is manuals, it is almost the same of textbook, provides
the relevant information to the researcher, it is not only useful for the
researchers also the common people can read and take essential literature from

As we studied from every
aspect that the secondary literature gets from the previous papers which
contains large amount of information that can be very helpful for the newly
research papers. From the researcher’s point of view secondary literature is
the chief constituent in terms of, it highlights the purpose or aim of conducting
research, research objectives, research methodology, which type of analysis
tool will be used for testifying the results and verification of observations. Although
the secondary publications are not very much systematized as compare to primary
publications, however it is a mandatory requirement for the paper. Therefore, the
main objective of secondary literature is to gaining knowledge for the specific
area of interest.

It is concluded that, for
the research paper literature plays a backbone, as it is considered a main
source of information which helps to researcher for getting past knowledge and
build a new research in the specific are of interest.