RESEARCH PAPERBREXIT AND EUROPEAN UNION; PROS AND CONS INTRODUCTION:Brexit is one of the most important and interesting topic that has been under discussion since 2016 when the Great Britain gave its verdict in a referendum that was held on 23rd June and the UK residents voted with a simple majority of 52% to leave European Union.
European Union is an economic organization that was created in order to regulate the economic and political activities all across the Europe and ensure stability in the region. Its main objective was to promote quality, in terms of economics, among the European states. It has, therefore introduced a system of single free trade market which is regulated under standardized set of laws which have unanimously been decided and followed by the member states.
European Union’s basic policy and objective is to make sure the free movement of people, goods, services and money within the internal market. It is also responsible to enact the laws that have been laid down for the insurance of smooth market and economic system among the member states. It has also tried to diminish the disintegration among the European states and promote regional harmony and hence, development. Within the Schengen area the border controls and passports have been abolished and almost all of the European Union member states use the same currency that is Euro. Apart from the basic features of the European Union, it provides immense benefits to its member states and to other states of the world. The economic aid that European Union has provided to the needy countries among its members and to the rest of the world is the most than any other economic union.
European union covers almost 7.3% of the world population yet it generated 22.2% of the world nominal GDP in 2016 with 16.477 US trillion dollars. In addition to that, most of the European union member countries have high human development index. Along with the aforementioned points, European Union provides its member states with a lot of other advantages which allows them to bridge their differences effectively in order to ensure and maintain the peace of the region and the whole world. With so many advantages and benefits being provided by the European Union yet Britain decided to exit it.
This raises a question that needs to be researched about.QUESTION:Why did Britain Chose to leave the European Union, despite extensive benefits it offers to its member states?LITERATURE REVIEW:Various scholars and analyst behold different opinions in order to jot down the reason of Britain exiting the European Union despite the benefits it aims to provide and have been successful to a certain extent to make sure the proper implementation of its objectives. Following are the findings based on research on several aspect of the event. The verdict to leave the European union was not only about the demographics alone but various other factors played a pivotal role.
A vast number of analysts suggest the reason of the Britain bidding adieu to European Union is the Identity politics that can be found in the political system of the great Britain. Identity matters were equally important if not as strong, according to Kirby Swales. The Britain felt the need of change over time while particularly addressing the feelings of national identity.http://natcen.ac.uk/our-research/research/understanding-the-leave-vote/?gclid=CjwKCAiAhMLSBRBJEiwAlFrsTqrb7qdSeXy2qtAL-9E9xjXBLgq1wrGcdIymzWAt9_hTwPv7nN4RrxoCd1sQAvD_BwEhttp://blogs.
lse.ac.uk/eurocrisispress/2017/07/21/the-conflicting-identity-politics-of-brexit/Another reason that analysts argue that might be the reason of brexit is the fact that the economic risks that were being mentioned time and again by the British government as well as the media throughout the world did not persuade the voters.
They had something staunch and firm to stand by and be decisive about it The Leave crusade resounded all the more emphatically with the general population. There was a more noteworthy feeling of assurance about what affect leaving the EU would have on movement and autonomy. Individuals were less convinced by the Remain crusade’s emphasis on the financial dangers.Another factor that cannot be ignored is the number of new and young voters. The plebiscite attracted a huge number of voters and interestingly they were such voters who did not participate in the general elections back in 2015. The majority of them which makes almost 60% voted to leave.Another interesting factor in the Britain verdict to leave E u was the fact that it did not fall in the typical traditions of following a party line.
For instance, it is pretty obvious that the conservative supporters did not support their party leader David Cameron stance on the case which led to his resignation from the office. In any case, the position of Conservative MPs was preferred comprehended by people in general over that of their Labor partners. Regular left-right governmental issues don’t help clarify the Referendum vote. General society parts crosswise over partisan loyalties and individuals’ more extensive social esteems were more useful at clarifying the outcome.Turnout played a major role in case of Britain referendum just as it does in any other election. The majority of the people that turned out to vote favored leave. the Leave brought together a broad coalition of voters that did or did not have any stake in the system.The Leave battle’s prosperity was supported by an expansive based coalition of voters which is significantly more far reaching than the ‘left behind’.
This included three primary gatherings; well-to-do Eurosceptics, the more seasoned common laborers and a littler gathering of financially impeded, against Immigration voters.Which brings us to our best possible answer to the question that why the Britain did chose to leave the European union despite the union provides a number of benefits to its member states. HYPOTHESIS:Euro skepticism instilled in the British Nation lead to the exit of the UK from the European union. MAINBODY: EUROPEAN UNION:European Union is an international union of 28 nations (inc Britain) as a trade and monetary body. Its motivation is to be more focused in the worldwide commercial center. In the meantime, it must balance the requirements of its autonomous financial and political individuals.
It was founded in 1951. HISTORY OF EUROPEAN UNION: The concept of European trade area first came out in 1951 by the European coal and steel company. It had 6 founding members. Later, in 1957, a common market was established following the treaty of Rome. In 1968, custom duties were abolished and standard policies were put in order, in trade and agricultural arena particularly. The first parliament of ECSC was established in 1979 with the addition of various other states.
In 2009, another treaty was signed in Lisbon it enhanced the powers of European parliament manifolds. It provided the European Union the legitimate authority to sign and negotiate the international treaties. It also allowed the EU to control borders, issues related to immigration, the judicial cooperation in criminal and civil matters as well as police.
It abandoned the idea of a European Constitution. European law is still established by international treaties.FEATURES OF EUROPEAN UNION:The most important feature of European Union as an organization towards its member states is the economic department and financial issues. They provide lending rates for banks and cater the problems related to inflation that may arise in the member states.
In order for a state to decide whether to join European Union is a question that holds not only political importance for the government but also for the layman who might not have any concern with the political elite of the country, Because inflation in case of any sort of economic crisis would have a direct impact on him. Every organization, no matter how big or small may it be has its benefits and drawbacks that must be considered before joining it by the states. European Union is no exception, it has plenty of pros that it offers not only to the member state on regional level but also at the global level causing global harmony and integration thus peaceful co existence.The first thing that is important to mention that EU provides to its member states is the tax free trading. The EU member states are given the opportunity to trade with no imposition of tax across the borders.
This keeps the prices of the goods and other useful stuff lower and affordable, hence controls inflation. Another feature that attracts the countries towards European Union is the fact that it brings the people from different countries closer diminishing the border differences. It allows the people of the member states to travel free without any visa. It opens up gates to various opportunities’ from the people in terms of jobs, education and much more. This is beneficial especially for the people belonging to the poor member states. It becomes an attractive option for the countries/states to become a part of because it respects the cultural sovereignty of all the states. It does not have any official language or an official day which may be celebrated throughout the European Union member states thusly respecting the states’ integrity and allowing them to follow their own traditions and cultures with total freedom and without making them feel intruded.
Another important factor that is beneficial not only for the member states but also for the world as a whole because it promotes peace and harmony among the nations who are the member of the organization. There are strict rules took after for any issues that happen inside the EU. This keeps any of these nations from getting into huge political or practical issues with each other and advances peace all through the mainland.
Just like every coin has two sides, everything in this world has some negatives as well. So does European Union. Since I have already mentioned the pros for the member states of the European Union following are the few drawbacks that need to be mentioned as well. The first and the foremost factor is the fact that as discussed earlier, the European Union is an economic based organization which deals with the financial matters of the states that are its members. It distributes the wealth among all the countries on equal basis. This might be unfair to the states that carry the capability of becoming the super powers.
The shared wealth creates frustrating among the states like Germany as well as in case of Brexit this factor played a great role. The policies of the European Union are extremely binding and strict. Withdrawing from it is very difficult for the member states. This is one of the reasons that many states have refused to join European Union in the first place.
As mentioned above that European Union does not have any official language, which on one hand makes room for cultural sovereignty simultaneously on the other hand creates a language or communication barrier where people lack communication and hence it impacts the unity of the member states. The European Union has control over the administration in these nations. This implies on the off chance that they don’t care for a political pioneer, they can basically show them out of office. It is extremely straightforward for this to break the lines of debasement and cause significant issues in government divisions. Moreover, in order to be a part of European Union, a state must be a part of Europe which creates a sense of partiality among the states of the world. The borders are not defined for Europe which gives the union an authority to choose its members based on personal interests. The arrangements, choices, and guidelines set up by the European Union are not there to secure the best enthusiasm of every individual nation.
Rather, they will likely propel the EU in general. This has caused harms in littler nations that are regularly left unheard.BRITAIN AND EUROPEAN UNION:The United Kingdom made its first application to participate in the European Union in 1961. It was rapidly obvious that there was a threat of political separation inside Western Europe, Commonwealth states were hurrying to form the new coalition, and it had American help. This application was vetoed by the French Government in 1963 with a moment, later the application was made again in 1967 which was vetoed by the French again in 1967. It was only in 1969 that the green signal was given Britain to become a formal part of the European Union. The United Kingdom joined the European Economic Community (EEC) as it was called at that time on 1 January 1973 along with Denmark and Ireland.
This demonstrated dubious at the time. The Labor party at first looked for renegotiation of enrollment. This was conditioned down to requiring a choice on whether the United Kingdom ought to remain a part of the Community.
This referendum was appropriately held in 1975 with a 67% vote for proceeded with enrollment of Britain into the union. BENEFITS TO BRITAIN:· FREEDOM TO TRAVEL:As an individual from the EU, UK natives advantage from opportunity of development over the landmass. Considered one of the alleged four mainstays of the European Union, this opportunity enables all EU nationals to live, work and goes in other part states. A British individual to has the privilege to remain in some other EU nation giving they have a legitimate UK identification.· SUSTANANCE OF JOBS:A report by the Center for Economics and Business Research, discharged in October 2015, recommended 3.1 million British employments were connected to the UK’s fares to the EU.· SUBSIDIES TO THE FARMER:European Union conjointly provides hefty subsidies to British farmers, serving to bolster agriculture and guarantee job stability a huge number of directly concerned in farming, and people operating in sectors associated with the trade.
EFFECT IN BRITAIN’s ECONOMY:Britain became a part of European Union in 1973, at that point of time it’s economy was weak and it was below many countries of Europe. It was in a dire need of stabilizing its economy to which European Union played a vital role. The UK’s economy was so ruined that by the late 60’s states like France, Italy and West Germany which are considered to be equal to the UK, had better economic conditions. They delivered more per individual than it and the hole developed bigger consistently. If a comparison is to be carried out between the Britain’s GDP per head before and after its entrance into the European Union and the three aforementioned states, it is estimated that the GDP rose 95 for every penny in France, Italy and Germany and on the contrary in case of Britain it was just 50 for each penny.In the wake of turning into an EEC part, Britain gradually started to make up for lost time. Total national output per individual has become quicker than Italy, Germany and France in the over a long time since. By 2013, Britain turned out to be more prosperous than the normal of the three other substantial European economies out of the blue since 1965.
It is evaluated that how Britain would have fared in the event that it had not joined the normal market. the best estimate to Britain’s pre-1973 financial execution to be a mix of New Zealand and Argentina, which like the UK fell behind the US and mainland Europe.BREXIT:The word, Brexit is the combination of Britain and Exit as it is derived from the Greek concept Grexit.
Brexit is Britain exiting from European Union as a result of a referendum that took place all across the UK in 2016. The brits decided to bid Good bye to the European Union with marginal majority of 52%. Since we have discussed that how European benefits its member states with a lot of economic and other pros, the question then arises that what made the Britain exit European Union?The main reason that led the Britain exit the European Union is the Euro skepticism that exists in the Britons. After the Second World War in 1945, the Britain had to decide which path they would be going to follow. Winston Churchill, the then prime minister was in favor of a united Europe where all the divisions, inequality and inequity will be left behind. He wanted to make sure the regional co operation and prosperity throughout Europe and avoid any circumstances that could lead to another war. He wanted to provide the European with a system that may dwell in safety, in freedom and in prosperity in the long run. European coal and steel company was established in 1951 and European Economic union was founded 6 years later.
The Britain did not join it immediately because of the divisions in the point of views among the political elite at that time. The Britain always had a sense of superiority over the rest of the European states. They were much more stable than all of them after the 2nd world war.
The Britain leaders thought that it would be unfair to the British population as well as to the nation’s integrity to divide its resources among all the European states on equal basis. Even at the time of signing the treaty of Rome they sent a middle rank trade official to observe the treaty. Later in 1961, a Tory prime minister Harold Macmillon argued that continued exclusion from the rest of the Europe would be harmful thus it is pertinent for it to join the union. As a result of which, the membership of the European Union was applied by the Britain in 1961.
At that time, the labor party was filled with the euro-skeptic leaders. The proponents of euro skepticism were of the view that of the Britain would become the part of the European states it would be the end of their history which finds its traces for a thousand years back. However, the membership application by Prime Minister Macmillan was vetoed by French president Charles De Gaulle who was afraid that the UK would torpedo the grand project. It was only in 1973, when UK became a part of the European Union. The labors were hugely split over the decision. In 1975, the labor party came into power and their PM Harold Wilson had promised to look into the terms of the Britain’s membership in the European Union and renegotiate them according to their will in his manifesto. He also agreed to carry out a referendum to have a clear picture of what the majority wants in the concerned case. He gave a total freedom to the proponents of Euro skepticism to campaign their opinions to the general masses since he had no other option for his party was split in 2 groups.
The results turned out in the favor of the membership when 67% of the population voted to stay. The cabinet later on came together but with trepidation. Margaret Thatcher had battled to remain in the EEC in 1975, four years previously getting to be plainly head administrator, and marked the Single European Act in 1986. Be that as it may, she came to surrender all expectations regarding the European undertaking. Her Bruges discourse of 1988 turned into a format for another age of Tory doubters.
It was not given to put the nation on course for an exit, yet to constrain Europe’s desire. “To endeavor to stifle nationhood and amass control at the focal point of an European combination would be exceptionally harming and would endanger the destinations we try to accomplish,” Thatcher said. Tory Eurosceptics were roused.
Progressively, they trusted the first vision of an exchanging region had been supplanted by Franco-German desire for political and financial union. As the focal point of gravity moved in both fundamental gatherings, Labor under Neil Kinnock grasped a social Europe, though with protection from unions and the left. Thatcher’s inexorably strident incredulity put her inconsistent with key individuals from her bureau, including Michael Heseltine, and rushed her ruin. The expelling of Thatcher, the UK’s horrendous experience inside, and exit from, the European Exchange Rate Mechanism in 1992, trailed by lines over the Maastricht bargain, which made the EU and prepared for monetary union, guaranteed that Europe obstinate John Major’s prevalence. The Tory war seethed similarly as Tony Blair landed as Labor pioneer in 1994, promising to lead a British government focused on the EU and which would much consider joining the euro if conditions were correct. Like Blair, Gordon Brown was a solid genius European, however not normal for him he had serious questions about the euro. Towards the finish of Labor’s first term, the issue was causing genuine strain, as Brown, the chancellor, and his financial guide, Ed Balls, demanded strict tests being met. The Tories, under their hostile to EU pioneer, William Hague, gained little ground, and less under the more hard line Iain Duncan Smith.
At the point when David Cameron put himself forward as a planned Tory pioneer in 2005, it was on a guarantee to lead the gathering out of the middle right federalist gathering, the European People’s gathering (EPP), as a flag of purpose. Under strain from the eurosceptics, Cameron promises in or out referendum The head administrator said he needed his gathering to quit “striking into about Europe” a vain expectation. Having regarded his EPP vow, his Euro sceptics needed significantly more. He went to Brussels to cut the EU spending plan and veto integrationist designs, however it was insufficient. They needed a choice on whether to stay or leave. In 2013, he gave them one and said he would endeavor to renegotiate a superior settlement for the British individuals previously holding a vote before the finish of 2017. But it happened in 2016 only, and the referendum was held and Britons decided their fate with regards to European Union. David Cameron resigned from the office and Theresa may resume it from there.
CONCLUSION:Key to understand the result of the referendum are several factors, for example, a significantly euro-skeptic open, elevated amounts of national vulnerability, isolated standard political gatherings on the EU and absence of solidarity inside the ‘Leave’ crusade. The Brexit choice is something beyond about domestic issues and government endorsement. Utilitarian concerns identified with monetary assessments of EU mix combined with help of or restriction to EU flexibility of development probably had an impact on the decision. BIBLIOGRAPHY:· http://natcen.ac.uk/our-research/research/understanding-the-leave-vote/?gclid=CjwKCAiAhMLSBRBJEiwAlFrsTqrb7qdSeXy2qtAL-9E9xjXBLgq1wrGcdIymzWAt9_hTwPv7nN4RrxoCd1sQAvD_BwE· http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/eurocrisispress/2017/07/21/the-conflicting-identity-politics-of-brexit/· http://politheor.net/brexit-a-matter-of-identity-politics/· http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-923X.12258/abstract· https://www.vox.com/2016/6/25/12029962/why-did-britain-leave-the-eu· http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-32810887· https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/brexit-british-identity-politics-immigration-and-david-camerons-undoing/· https://www.economist.com/news/britain/21694557-why-britons-are-warier-other-europeans-eu-roots-euroscepticism· https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/feb/07/british-euroscepticism-a-brief-history· https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/policy/conditions-membership_en· https://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/britain-and-the-eu-in-or-out-one-year-on· https://lawandcourtsblog.wordpress.com/tag/eu/· https://about-britain.com/institutions/constitution.htm· https://www.change.org/p/european-parliament-european-commission-council-of-the-european-union-respect-promote-and-protect-freedom-of-informed-vaccination-consent-throughout-europe· http://www.ereport.ru/en/articles/ecunions/eu.htm· http://intersectionproject.eu/article/russia-europe/russias-perception-brexit-no-means-reason-celebrate