Research ranked second after China with the total population



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is a South Asian country situated on the north of the equator between 8°4′ and
37°6′ north latitude and 68°7′ and 97°25′ east longitude. It has a total area
of 3,166,414 sq. km. and the seventh-largest country of the world. In respect
to population India ranked second after China with the total population of 1210
million as per census 2011. In its total population 623.7 million are males and
586.5 million are females. In 2011 census has done the counting of transgender
also and the total population of
transgender was 487,803. It shows that there are around 4.9 lakh of third
gender people in India.

to census 2011 the total literacy rate of the country is 74.04 percent which is
higher than 64.8 percent in 2001. Census 2011 also reveals that the male
literacy is higher than female literacy as male literacy is 82.14 percent and
female literacy is 65.46 percent. Over 66% of the population of third gender
lived in rural areas and the census data also revealed the low literacy level
in the community i.e. only 46%, which is low as compared to general population.
The country also follows share of population as religion wise like 80.5 percent
of the Hinduism, 13.4 percent Islam, 2.3 percent of Christian, 1.9 percent
Sikhism, 0.8 percent Buddhism and 0.4 percent  Jainism (C. Chandramauli).




Geographical area (in sq. km)                                                      



Number of State                                                    

29 and 7 Union territories 


Total Population                               

1210 million (17.5% of World’s  population)


Total male population                                                               

586.5 million


Total female population                                                            

377.5 million


Density of Population (Per                                                                  

382 persons per square km.


Sex Ratio (females per 1000 males)



Total Urban Population

833.0 million (31.2 %)


Rural Population                                                                                                             

68 million (68.9%)


Literacy (in percentage)

Absolute 74.04 %                                                                                    Males
82.14 % and Females 65.46 %                                                                               
Urban literacy rate 85 %, Rural 68.9%

India’s Census Report 2011)


Pradesh state of north India is also termed as U.P. situated between 27°40′
North latitude and 80° East longitude. It occupies an area of 240,928 sq. km.
of the country. The state share its bordered with other eight states i.e. Uttarakhand
in the north, Bihar and Jharkhand in the east, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh
in the south, Rajasthan in the South-West and Haryana and Delhi in the west.
Besides this, the state shares its north border with a country Nepal. Uttar
Pradesh is enriched with Himalayan Rivers, including two perennial rivers also
i.e. the sacred Ganga and the Yamuna. Ramganga, Gomti, Ghaghra and Kosi are also
the rivers that provide a good yielding harvest. In the following box several information
of the state (U.P) has been presented as per census 2011.





Geographical area (in                                                            



Number of District                                                             



City and towns                                                                                         



Total Population Persons                  




104 million



95 million


Percentage of India’s population                                                         



Density of Population (Per                                            

828 persons 


Sex Ratio(female per 1000 males)                                                           



Rural Population                                          

Absolute 131.6million (65.9%)


Urban Population                                             

Absolute 68 million (34.1 %)


Literacy rate                                                                       

Absolute 69.7 %                                                         
(Among male 79.2% and female 59.3%)


Total poor population  

737.9 million (37.7 % of the state’s
total population)                                                                   
(Urban 31.7 % and Rural 39.4%)

Census report of India 2011)

Pradesh constitutes 16.6 percent of country’s total population i.e. 199,581,477.
In terms of total population it is fifth largest state in India, but it covers
only 7.3 percent area of the country (Mehta and Shah 2001). Being a populous
state of the country, a high incidence of poverty in state translates into high
poverty for India. In present scenario, the state is estimated in eight less
developed states of the country. The highest proportion of the third gender
population is recorded in Uttar Pradesh around 28% i.e. 136,584 of population which
is followed by 9% in Andhra Pradesh, 8% each in Maharashtra and Bihar, over 6%
in both Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal and well over 4% in Tamil Nadu,
Karnataka and Odisha, 3% in Rajasthan and 2% in Punjab.


present research work has been carried out in Lucknow city. Lucknow is the
capital city of Uttar Pradesh. It is located in Awadh (Oudh) region and it is
the largest city of Uttar Pradesh. Hindi is the main language of the city and
Urdu is also widely spoken in the city. Prior the capital was controlled by the
Delhi Sultanate which was then controlled by Mughal rulers. After that it was
later transferred to the Nawabs of Awadh. In 1856, the British East India
Company took whole control of the city. On 15 August 1947 along with the rest
of India, Lucknow also became independent from British rule.


city is also called as the ‘City of Nawab’. It is also known as the
multicultural city and Golden city of the East because of its heritage culture.
The splendour and magnificence of the Nawabi era has been glorified with the
ages of different writers, poets and historians. Along with its cultural
refinement, it is also associated with its legendary hospitality and leisurely
moods of life in history. Lucknow is the site of Vidhan Sabha, the High Court
(Allahabad’s bench) and numerous government departments and agencies also. Lucknow
has the highest population of Shia Muslim.


the local pronunciation of the “Lucknow”. According to the legend,
the city is named on a character Lakshmana who was younger brother of Lord Rama
as mentioned in the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana. The legend states that
Lakshmana had a palace or estate in this area, which was called as Lakshmanapuri
which means Lakshmana’s city. However, the Dalit movement believes that city
gets its name from a dalit ruler Lakhan Pasi, who was the settler of the city. By
the 11th century it came to be known as Lakhanpur (or Lachhmanpur), and then Lucknow.
 Aanother theory states that the city’s
name is connected with the Hindu goddess of wealth i.e. Lakshmi. By the passing
of time, the name changed to Laksmanauti, Laksmnaut, Lakhsnaut, Lakhsnau and,
finally, Lakhnau.

is also a story that the town is named on Lakhna who is a milk seller. He got
the spiritual blessings of a Muslim saint after which he became rich and he
founded the town. Even the Ain-i-Akhbari, as a part of the suba of Avadh does
not mention anything about the origin of the name of Lucknow (V. C. Sharma). During
British period in 1857 Lucknow was one of the major centers of Indian
rebellion. It emerged as an important city of North India and in Independent India;
Lucknow became the capital of Uttar Pradesh (A.H. Sharar). 

and Climate:

city is situated in the Gangetic plain. It stands at an elevation of 123 meters
above sea level and covers an area of 2,528 square kilometres
(976 sq mi). It is surrounded by many villages and rural towns like
Malihabad, Kakori, Mohanlal ganj, Gosainganj, Itaunja, Amrai etc. Some
districts are located on its sides like Barabanki district lays in eastern
side, Unnao in the west, Raebareli on the south and Sitapur and Hardoi
districts on the northern side. The city has thirteen stations such as Alambagh,
Malhaur, Utretia, Dilkhusha, Gomtinagar, Badshahnagar, Manaknagar, Amausi,
Aishbagh junction, Lucknow city, Mohibullapur and other two are sub-urban
stations i.e. Bakshi ka talab and Kakori. All stations are within city limits
and connected with each other via road. The famous river Gomti, flows from
North West to south east which divides the city, into two major regions i.e.
Cis-Gomti and Tans-Gomti regions.

has a humid subtropical climate. It has cool and dry winters with fog from mid November
to February. It has thunderstorms with dry hot winds in summers from late March
to June. The rainy season is from July to September when the city gets an
average rainfall of 896.2 millimetres (35.28 in).







March to June

30o C to 45o

Occasional thunderstorms with hot dry



November  to February

3o C to 20o C

Cool and dry months with thick fogs.



to September

24o C to 33o C

Blowing cool winds and humid climate.


Flora and Fauna:

Lucknow has only 4.66 percent of
forest area, which is much less than the state which covers around 7 percent.
The trees grown here are Shisham, Dhaak, Mahuamm, Babul, Neem, Peepal, Ashok,
Khajur, Mango and Gular.

Lucknow has varieties of
mangoes, especially Dasheri which grow in the Malihabad area adjacent to the
city. The main crops are wheat, paddy, sugarcane, mustard, potatoes, and
vegetables such as cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, and brinjals. Similarly,
sunflowers, roses, and marigolds are cultivated. Many medicinal and herbal
plants are also grown here.


per census 2011, the total population of the city is 2,815,601 in which
1,470,133 were men and 1,345,468 are women. This population has increased from
the population of 2001 which was 2,245,509. The 25.8 percent was the estimated
decadal growth rate of the year 2001-2011. The population density of the city
is 1,816 people per sq. km which has also increased from 1,443 people per sq.
km. in 2001. The highest proportion of its population in the Lucknow city is of
Hindu i.e. 67 percent which is followed by 30 percent of Muslims and 0.3
percent of Jains and others are 2.3 percent only. Third gender population in Lucknow
was scattered in many places and about population there was no specific data or
counted data available.

per census 2011, the sex ratio of the city is 915 women per 1000 male which is
increased from last previous years. However, still the sex ratio of the Lucknow
city is less than the average sex ratio of our country which is 940 as per
thousand male.

Sex Ratio of the City (Women per 1000 Men)


Sex Ratio 









(Source: CDP 2006; Lucknow Census
report 2011)


city is a hub of education but still a large number of people are illiterate.
As per census report in 2011 total literacy rate of Lucknow city is 3,226,214
i.e. 79.8 percent where as male literacy rate is 1,799,177 i.e. 84.3 percent
and female literacy rate is 1,427,037 i.e. 73.9 percent. The data is shown in
table below and this table also illustrates about the literacy rate of Uttar
Pradesh which is lower than the literacy rate of the city.





U.P Total





















(Source: CDP 2006; Census of Lucknow


is a multicultural city who has different dialects and languages. The city
culture is the amalgamation of the Hindu and Muslim rulers. The residents of
Lucknow call themselves Lucknowites or Lakhnavi. Today
Lucknowites are known for their polite and polished way of speaking. It also shows
the effect of globalization where the legacy of Nawab’s culture continues to be
reflected in the traditional vocabulary of the Hindi language of the city.


is considered as the root of all Indian cuisine. The representation of Islamic
food in India is related to Lucknow. The cuisine of Lucknow i.e. Lucknow
dastarkhwan would be incomplete unless it include the following dishes like
qorma (braised meat in thick gravy), salan (a gravy dish of meat of
vegetables), qeema (minced meat), kababs (pounded meat fried or roasted over a
charcoal fire), bhujia (cooked vegetables), dal, pasinda (fried silvers of very
tender meat, usually kid, in gravy). In Lucknow rice is cooked with meat in the
form of pulao, chulao (fried rice) or served plain and there are variety of
rotis or chapattis like nans, sheermals, kulchas and taftans. Desserts comprise
gullati (rice pudding), kheer (milk sweetened and boiled with whole rice to a
thick consistency), sheer brunj, (a rich, sweet rice dish boiled in milk),
muzaffar (vermicelli fried in ghee and garnished with almonds and saffron) and
halwas garnished with balai (cream).

winter season dishes like shab degh, shorba (thick gravy) and paya (trotters)
are also very popular. In spring season crisp snacks, phulkis (besan pakoras in
salan), puri-kababs and birahis (parathas stuffed with mashed dal) are also in
trend. Raw mangoes cooked in semolina and jaggery or sugar, called guramba, is
famous desert in summer.


is famous for its music, dance, drama and poetry. Persian music, dance,
language, costumes and culture were brought by the Nawab Wazirs and it gets
blended beautifully with the developed arts, language and culture of Hindus of
India. This synthesis resulted in enriched forms of music, Kathak dance,
poetry, drama, language and the Lucknow became famous for the mixture of
Indo-Iranian and Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb. The spoken languages also have a blend
of Persian, Urdu, Hindi and Avadhi and this can be seen in music too,
brajbhasha had a favoured place.

historic pillars the tinklings sounds of thousands of ghunghroos, the thunder
of pakhawajs, the boons of baayaans and the resonant tones of sitars, sarods,
shahnais and sarangis can be heard. In the history of Hindustani music and
dance, Lucknow occupies a very prominent place. The distinct style of Lucknow Gharana
Kathak, Lucknow Tabla, Lucknow (poorab) Ang Thumri-Dadra and Lucknow style of
ghazal singing prove about the contributions of Lucknow to music and dance. Some
famous personalities of Lucknow in music are Ustad Pyar Khan, Basat Jaffar,
Bahadur, Haidar and Nasir Ahmad Khan Ghulam Hussain, his son Dulbe Khan, Mehndi
Hussain, Kalawant Raza Hussain and many others. Lachhu Maharaj, Acchchan
Maharaj, Shambhu Maharaj and Birju Maharaj still have kept this tradition
alive. The city has witnessed the Hindustani classical music and kathak dance
over more than three centuries.

of the famous institutes of dance, music and drama are Bhartendu Academy of
Dramatic Arts or Bhartendu Natya Academy, Bhatkande Music Institute University
and Sangeet Natak Akademy. Apart from these institutes, IPTA, Theatre Arts
Workshop (TAW), Darpan, Manchkriti and the largest youth theatre group, Josh
were also there.

Lucknow Chikan:

works of Lucknow are very famous like chikankari, zari, zardosi, kamdani and gota
making. Indian Geographical Indication Registry (GIR) accorded Geographical
Indication (GI) status in December 2008 and recognize Lucknow as the exclusive
hub for its manufacture of chikankari.


has several educational and research organizations like Central Drug Research
Institute, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, IIM Lucknow, National
Botanical Research Institute, IET Lucknow, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute
of Medical Sciences and King George Medical College.

has some universities also like the University of Lucknow, Babasaheb Bhimarao
Ambedkar University, Technical University, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia National Law
University, and a number of polytechnics, engineering institutes, industrial
training institutes and schools like Delhi Public School, City Montessori
School, Colvin Taluqdar’s College, St. Francis College, Loreto Convent, La
Martieniers, Lucknow Public School, Cathedral School, Christ Church College

Places to Visit:

the city is evolving as an important centre for technology, education,
commerce, aerospace, finance, pharmaceuticals, design, tourism, music, poetry
etc. Lucknow is the second largest metro city of North and Central India after
Delhi and the 11th largest city of India in context to population. The famous
places to visit in Lucknow are Asafi Imambara (Bara Imambara), British
Residency, Ambedkar memorial, Ram Krishna Math, Planetarium, Lucknow Zoo and
museum etc. There are some monuments to visit like Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Samajik
Parivartan Sthal, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Gomti Buddha Vihar, Samajik Parivartan
Prateek Sthal, Samta Mulak Chowk, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Gomti Vihar/Park,
Manyawar Kanshiram Memorial, Bauddha Vihar Shanti Upvan, Manyawar Shri
Kanshiram Ji Green (Eco) Garden (MSKJGEG) and Smriti Upvan.