Psychological rigidity has become one of the hallmarks of thehealth community (Rappaport and Seidman, 2000).Problems and issues in social and psychological domains definedas challenges. Classical social and psychological researchers deal withstudying a problem in specific ambit by applying psychological test thatsuitable to deal with this problem. According to Urbina et al. (1997) apsychological test is “an objective and standardized measure of behaviorof individual’s performance on tasks that have usually been prescribedbeforehand.
The most common type of psychological test is a paper-and-penciltest, which are series of questions should be fulfilled by responder for sakeof the measurement. Performance on these questions produces a test score. Thetechnical term for the science behind psychological testing is psychometrics(Mellenbergh, 1989). In this paper, we have introduced twitter as psychologicaltest media. We have used twitter for measuring Security and educationalchallenges in Saudi Arabia. Security and educational challenges are threating the educationalsecurity. Educational security means that each nation has its own educationalideas stemming from its values and its stylistic and philosophical constant,which shape its identity and character. Educational security protects nationsthrough its educational values (Ali, 2013).
Security and educational challengescould be summarized into three challenges: cross-cultural, ethics of dialogueand rules of difference, and dominant negative social values. Cross-culturalchallenge is defined as following a civilizational style to apply some beliefsand believing this is the absolute truth (Arif,1995). Ashki (2006) defined ethicsof dialogue and rules of difference as “a type of communication between peoplethat respects the differences of “the Other,” which allows for true listeningin a safe environment that offers possibilities for the transformation ofself-awareness in each individual”. Dominant social values defined as valueswhere the majority of people in a society support at a particular time (Prilleltensky, 1989).
If the these values are negative,it called dominant negative social values. As example of dominant negative socialvalues in Saudi Arabia at the moment could be values such as: men and women areconsidered not equal.On the other hand, Sentiment analysis objectives to determine theattitude of a speaker, writer, or other subject with respect to some topic (Cambria and Hussain, 2012). Recently, social media obviouslycontains huge human activity which provides fertile source for the sentimentanalysis Pfeffer, 2014).
Twitter is created to be fast communication medium forpeople from all walks of Life and is considering one of the most importantsocial networking sites on the World Wide Web, and it has a global impact. Usingtwitter Sentiment analysis to understand and predict emotions, opinions, ormood has been proven and demonstrated theoretically and practically (Maynardand Bontcheva, 2016). Sánchez et al. (2017)presented the value of twitter as a new data source for social science. Henece,twitter represents a fertile source for many human studies due to itsquantitative and qualitative content. More than 140 million active userspublish over 400 million “Tweets” every day (Li, 2012).
In the Middle East,Twitter is becoming prominent player in socio-political events, such as theArab Spring (MacEachren, 2011). Vosoughi et al. (2015) discussed the importanceof Twitter in the analysis and study of human behavior and refer it to the factthat is less than only 10% of twitter accounts are private. The previous two facts:importance of measuring educational and security challenges, and availabilityto obtain huge human activities have encouraged us to measure educational andsecurity challenges by using social media and more precisely by using twitter.
Twitter is currently the mostpopular social networking program in the Kingdom. According to Alyaum website(2015) there are five hundred thousand tweets per day from Saudi Arabia. For sure, this figure has been increased bynow. In this paper, we have introduced a novel approach to measure psychological hardiness by using tweets that have been initiated atSaudi Arabia.
The research question is “what is the relation between educationaland security challenges and timing in Saudi Arabia?” We have targeted onlyArabic tweets. In methodology section, section three, more details about datacollection and analysis have been provided. The traditional educational and securitychallenges measurement is conducted by questionnaire which isfilled directly by a targeted person at specific time.
Hence, his answers werementioned to his mood at that time. According to Choi (2011) educational andsecurity challenges are influenced by variable factors, which making itvulnerable to change. For instance, in psychological test that measureeducational and security challenges which developed by Mikhamar and Imad(1996), the first question is ” Whateverthe obstacles, I can achieve my goals”, the responder should choose one answer from: “Always”, “sometimes”, or “Never”, a responder could choose “Always” but atanother time may choose “sometimes”. Consequently, measuring psychologicalhardiness in one time, regardless the sample type, or size, may not provide aclear vision or successful results.