Protocols that are mostly used in automotive industry are:

that are mostly used in automotive industry are:

CAN – Controller Area Network

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LIN – Local Interconnected Network

MOST – Media Oriented System Transport

Flex Ray, etc.

– Controller Area Network

protocol is one of the most important serial bus system for networking
intelligent devices, emerged as the standard in-vehicle network. Each of the
devices on the network has a CAN controller chip.

is included in different levels with multiple networks. Example: linking the
door units or brake controllers, passenger counting units and more. CAN has
several physical layers which are classified in some aspects in CAN network.
High speed CAN is the most common physical layer which allows communication up
to 1Mbit/s transfer rates. Anti – lock brakes systems, engine control modules
are the typical high speed CAN devices.

CAN are implemented with two wires for communication between devices with rates
of transfer up to 125kbit/s. typical CAN low-speed devices in automobiles are
comfort devices.

wire CAN have communication rates up to 33kbits, typical single – wire devices
in automobiles include comfort devices such as mirror adjusters and seat.

– Local Interconnected network

– is byte oriented communication protocol designed to support automotive
networks in conjunction with CAN Controller Area Network. It is cost effective
communication which has sensors and actuators when the features of CAN are not

main features of LIN protocol are low cost and low speed compared to CAN – LIN
is used for short distance network. The LIN bus is connected between smart
sensors and an ECU – Electronic Control Unit – which is a gateway with CAN bus.
LIN is also a broadcast type serial network but it uses a single master and
multiple slaves. For data communication LIN uses frames. A frame consists of a
header, a response. This system of using headers and responses has a lot of

1)      The nodes can be added to the network without
requiring hardware or software changes in slave nodes.

2)      The identifier defines the conduct of a message.

3)      Any number of nodes can simultaneously receive and act
upon a single frame.


main purpose of Flex Ray network is to support the drive by wire systems such
as steer by wire and brake by wire. It requires good error management along
with high transmission rates.

protocol of flex ray is unique time-triggered communication protocol with a
dual channel data rate of 10Mbps for advanced in vehicle control applications.
The flex ray communication protocol is designed to provide high-speed
deterministic distributed control for advanced automotive applications.

Flex Ray standard is adaptable to many different types of network. Every Flex Ray
network may be different, so each node have to be programmed with correct
network parameters before participating on the bus.

– Media Oriented Systems Transport

has the largest bandwidth of all the networks and it is mainly used for audio,
video and telecommunication systems it is the most suitable for real time audio
and video transmission applications.

provides point to point audio and video data transfer with a data rate of 24.8
Mbps. It support the end user applications such as radios, GPS (Global
Positioning Systems). MOST’s physical layer is a plastic option fiber for
higher transmission rates than classical copper wires.



security threat is increasing continuously because cars are getting
interconnected with other devices and environment around. Before the concept of
a connected car was introduced the automotive industry did not pay much
attention to cybersecurity because the attackers required physical access to
perform attack.

we have cars with multiple connections to other network including connection to


Figure 2.3 shows all the additional services that the connected car
will have in the future. Car2Cloud technology represents all internal services
available because of the existence of Internet connections.



1.      Over the air updates. (OTA). The connected cars are
very similar to computers, since they are having very complex software
architecture and a lot of lot of applications which help enabling the new
features. These software needs to be updated to with new bug fixes or security
patches to prevent discovered vulnerabilities. The updates could be very
critical and sometimes dangerous for the safety of the driver and passengers if
not installed on time, and these create problems to automotive industry.

2.      Low computational power.  The computational power of vehicles is low.
This happens because of long life cycle of the vehicles and the conditions of
the environment. To the attackers this is one advantage because they can
leverage the power of stronger computers. As the vehicles gets older, the more
advanced technologies will be developed comparing to the cars production year
makes it even easier to exploit.

3.      Difficult to monitor. Because the car is not all the
time connected to the internet it is difficult to monitor the status of the
automotive electronics.

4.      Cost – one of the major difficulties is the cost of
making the software of the vehicle to be secure. Companies would need to employ
more people and they would need to change their entire development process in
order to incorporate security from the very beginning.

5.      No safety without security – only one infected car on
the road is a potential hazard for the surrounding vehicles, and each security
vulnerability exposes new safety issues.


The method which was invented by Intel called Threat Agent Risk
Assessment (TARA) has in its main focus the attackers. It is based on
descriptions of threat agents and their appropriate attributes such as
motivation, objective, skill, resources, attach methods and attack surface.  . The method is not time-consuming and the
knowledge required, and input information can be accessed which one of the
reasons why it was chosen for the threat is modeling in this case. It is also
very adaptable and can be applied to various industries such as the