Processor: the processor is also known as thecentral processing unit (CPU for short) and it is labelled as the brain of the computer, without a processor youcannot expect a PC to work.
It works by fetching instructions and thenexecuting them in an arithmetical sequence. The processor is installed into themotherboard in the holder made specifically for it, it will fit into place ontothe motherboard. When it is secured, thermal paste is spread onto one side ofthe processor for the heatsink, the thermal paste is a conductor which reducesthe risk of the processor overheating. Motherboard: a motherboard is often referred to asthe foundation of a computer, a PC needs a motherboard in order to build in therest of the components such as RAM. Many of the other components in a PC areconnected to the motherboard, this includes the PSU and the Hard Drive/Disk.Each component has its own individual connector and connector cable on themotherboard.
BIOS: this is built into every computer andit controls how a system will boot up. It is the Basic Input/Output System, using BIOS will allow users tochoose what device to boot their OS from and what order each component shouldbe in, in order of importance. BIOS can be used for many different reasons butthe main reason is to install an OS onto a system but it is often used inSystem Repairs. Using BIOS will allow a user to find a problem with thecomponents and solve them, one example of this is if the computer cannot find a”Boot Device”, BIOS allows users to choose where to boot an OS from which isnormally on a CD or on the Hard Drive. Power Supply: in order for anything to work on a computer it will need a power supply, youcan get a range of power supplies depending on what system a user has. A powersupply turns alternating currents into a direct current to supply a computerscomponent with constant power. The PSU plugs into the motherboard using a 4-pinATX connector and a 16-pin ATX connector, they come built with a fan inside toensure that no overheating will occur inside of the PSU. Cooling System: for the safety of the componentsinside of the computer it is important to have cooling systems such as a HeatSink and fans, some computers even have water cooling.
The most common form ofcooling a computers component is through fans and this because they are fairlycheap and easy to install. A heatsink will be placed on top of the CPU alongside thermal paste which is used as aconductor, a fan will then be placed on top of the heat sink to cool down theCPU. Other components such as RAM will not have fans but they can be installedin the case to cool down the whole system. GPUs have built-in fans and this is because graphics cards are now put undera lot of stress from new games and software. Hard Drive Configurationand Controllers: a hard drive is an IDE or IntegratedDrive Electronics which is situated in a PC and it is connected to the motherboardusing attachments. Hard drives inside of a computer are controlled using acontroller and there are two different types of these.
The hard drive isconnected to the motherboard using the primary controller and the CD uses thesecondary controller. The hard drive and CD drive have to be configured toeither a master drive or slave drive. – SATA: this attachment device is primarilyused to connect drives to the motherboard in order for it to work, a SATA is avery thin strip of cables combined together too.A SATA cable is very important because, withoutit, the hard drive would not be able to operate and therefore data would not besent around the computer.
– PATA: It is quite similar to the SATA cablebut has a different purpose inside of a computer. The PATA cable is used fortransferring data around the computer, it connects from drives to themotherboard and the motherboard sends data around the entire system. Ports: a computer system can have quite a fewports which are used for different things, many computers have USB ports,Serial ports, and parallel ports. – USB: a USB port is the most popular portused in today’s computers, lots ofaccessories have been adapted to USB ports such as keyboards. A USB port can beused for more than just adding a keyboard or mouse to the computer set up, USBsticks are commonly used as a way to transfer data from system to systemsecurely. – Serial: before the USB port was added intocomputers the serial port was the main port to use to connect hardware to thecomputer, a serial port can have a 9 or 25 pin port which means keyboards andmice would have to have a 9 or 25 pin connector cable. – Parallel: it is rare to find a parallel portused in today’s computers due to theinvention of the USB port and circular cables. The parallel port used a cablemuch similar to a SATA cable to connect hardware to a computer.
Internal Memory:- RAM: Random Access Memory or RAM isresponsible for how well a program runs on a computer, RAM is temporary storagewhich is connected to the motherboard, it loads programs from the storelocation to the CPU and the more RAM that a computer has the quicker this willload which means the better a program will run. All of the temporaryinformation stored on the RAM is deleted when the computer is turned off. – ROM: Read Only Memory is not temporarywhich means when the computer is turned off data is not deleted, another wordfor this is Non-Volatile. You are able to change the contents of ROM but it canpotentially damage the computer and it is extremely difficult. Specialised Cards:- Network Card: a network card allows users to connectto the network through an ethernet cable or through a wireless connection whichmost users use now if computers did nothave a network card they would not be able to usethe internet.
– Graphics Card: graphics cards are responsible fordisplaying an image on a monitor, the graphics card will receive a signal fromthe processor telling it what to display. The better a graphics card willdetermine the quality of the image displayed on the screen, one of the bestgraphics cards now has a memory speed of 10 Gbps. 1. Purpose of an Operating SystemThe purpose of having an OS is because it can interact withinternal components to allow the user to perform actions, without an operatingsystem installed on a computer, the system would just be a simple device usedwhich only has BIOS settings installed onto it. The way it works is ittranslates commands into a language that the components inside of the computerto understand and this is why it performs certain actions. An operating systemhas to perform many different tasks and these include:- CPUManagement- MemoryManagement – I/OManagement – DeviceDrivers- Hardware- ApplicationsCPU Management: managing a CPUs performance is acrucial part of an operating system, the most popular operating systems whichare Microsoft, Mac and Linux have some form of CPU management. The reasoningbehind this is because it dedicates more CPU power to a more CPU intensiveapplication. A good example of how more CPU is dedicated to certainapplications is when someone is rendering a big project from something likeCinema 4D, the application will be demanding more CPU power to render theproject.
If there was no CPU management lots of CPU power would go to waste onapplications such as Google Chrome, without the CPU being told how much CPU togive to Google Chrome it may give more than it really needs and therefore it isbeing wasted. Memory Management: alongside CPU management, managingmemory is also very important, there are lots of very RAM intensiveapplications out there, Google Chrome is an excellent example, a user who has16GB of RAM has opened Chrome, on task manager Chrome is using 1GB of RAM.Depending on what tabs are open this may vary but an OS is important because ifit were not for Memory Management, lots more Memory would be spent on thisapplication.
I/O Management: an OS has to manage the I/O devicesthat could be used in computer, some of these include a mouse, keyboard and USBsticks. I/O management takes the I/O request and transfers it to the devicewhich then may send data back to the I/O manager. Device Drivers: whenever external devices areconnected to a computer they may need drivers in order for them to work withthe computer, this external device could be a keyboard for example. When a userplugs in a keyboard it may not work straight and this is dependent on the OS,if a user has Windows 10, it will automatically install device drivers but ifthe device is plugged into a Windows 7 computer the user will need to downloaddrivers.
Hardware: an OS can also be used to changesettings to hardware, an example of something being used like this is fanspeed, you can download applications on your OS and change the speeds of whichyour fans spin and cool down components. This is quite dangerous because if afan has been set to a certain speed and it goes over the limit it could breakand therefore not cool the components which will then cause them to get damagefrom the heat being produced. Applications: depending on what OS a user has willdetermine what applications they can and can’t have, Linux is very restrictedto what programs they can have compared to Mac and Windows, for some time Linuxwere not able to have Cinema 4D but Windows and Mac have always had the optionto install it. It is only quite recently that Linux has been able to have thisoption to install this application. Features Windows Linux Comparison Security Windows preinstalled security system, Windows Defender, is good for protecting a computer which is not always being used because it is able to detect common viruses and malicious content and quarantine it. For further protection it may be recommended to download anti-virus such as AVG. Linux is UNIX based which means if the OS is configured properly it will stop unwanted users from trying to enter the system and attempt to attack.
Any changes made to system requires a password and also a password is needed for downloading files which will give time to analyse the file that is being downloaded. This means that if any user who is trying to alter system files will be locked out due to the password protection When comparing Linux to Windows, Linux has a better security feature from the start but over time Windows users will have installed other anti-viruses which would then put them on the same level of protection. Stability Windows is stable enough for users to do their business and do it without any interruptions. If any bugs or glitches are found there will most likely be an update within the next couple of hours or days which shows that they want to keep improving their stability by bringing out patches once a bug has been detected. Before the Linux OS is distributed, it is said that programmers will go over the code to check for any bugs or anything odd inside of the code which limits the how unstable Linux can be. Although, if a bug is detected it can be easily altered and then Linux will be working again. Due Linux’s UNIX which provides great security there is a very small chance that any bugs will affect it.
On the other hand, without any extra protection, Windows users may experience more bugs due to third anti-viruses not detecting them and then Windows becomes unusable. Cost Windows 10, the newest release of Windows is estimated to cost around £80-£100 which is not cheap for an OS but some people are able to get their hands on free copies which are illegal. If a user would just like to have an OS on their computer then Linux is free, with extra coding and protection built into the code it may cost around £20 which is a lot cheaper. Linux is a lot cheaper when compared to Windows but depending on what goes inside of the code will determine how much it is really worth, for it to be configured properly it could cost more than Windows 10. Customer Support Windows offers a lot more support due to the number of users with questions about some problems that may be occurring on their computer, normally a Microsoft employee will be able to assist a user within a couple of hours.
Due to the small Linux community there is not a lot that would need assisting. Roughly 1% of users with a computer have Linux which means there is a small group of users that use Linux. Microsoft has a much larger community and sometimes questions don’t have to be answered by an employee but there is always an employee who can help with the problem but due to community size of Linux, not much help is available to the users who use Linux.
Customisability Windows 10 offers a lot of customization, you are able to change lots of different things such as your theme colour, lock background, taskbar colour and lots more. You can save presets so you can change it to what you want whenever you want. Linux’s code can easily be recoded to change the aesthetics of the OS, users can change the code until they find something that they like and they keep with it.
Linux and Windows both have great options of customization which allows users to choose what OS they want for good looks. Windows may have more options to change around but everyone who owns a Linux computer is different, their code is different. Hardware Management Windows users can easily access their hardware panel through the control panel to view what is inside of their computer and what is plugged into their computer. It will them the CPU details and memory, GPU details can easily be found by right clicking on the desktop and it will tell the user, NVIDIA, AMD or Intel. You can also see how much CPU is being used through the task manager. Linux provides more detail on hardware such as the motherboard that is inside of the computer.
It is not necessary to know this but it is good to know just in case any damage occurs to it and it needs to be replaced. Both Linux and Windows have good hardware management, on both operating systems you will be clearly informed to what is inside of your computer which is important for some people but for some users it is not important because they may not know what any of it means.