Pet 2), which is a contaminant that can be

               Pet 315 notes. Mud Laboratory Manual, Department of Petroleum Engineering,Covenant University.REFERENCE              Ph determination is very important because it helps us toprevent corrosion and to control other mud properties like viscosity, etc. Theoptimum control of some mud systems is based on ph, as is the detection andtreatment of certain mud contaminants. Other reasons for ph control includemaintenance of lime-treated muds, effective use of thinners, and corrosionmitigation.

CONCLUSION          The addition of salt to the mud (sample 2), which is acontaminant that can be encountered by the mud during drilling operations,affected the mud by causing a decrease in the ph value. If the value had beenfurther decreased, it could corrode the casing and drilling equipment when used.In the results gotten from the experiment for sample 1, itshows that the ph will have no significant effect on the viscosity of the mudsince the ph is within the range of 7-9.5ph. Also, the ph of sample 1 willprovide good hole stability and mud property control when used to minimizeshale problems. DISCUSSION           Electrometric: 7.3ph at 26.

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6?CColorimetric: 7phSample 2    Electrometric: 9.2ph at 26.4?CColorimetric: 9phSample 1RESULTS   2.  Afterusing the electrode, I covered it with the rubber cap.1.  Inever let the probe tip become dry. I always kept the glass bulb of the probemoist for fast response.

PRECAUTION (ELECTROMETRIC)   2.  Imade sure the colour of the test paper was stabilized before matching itagainst the standard colour chart.1.  Iavoided sticking the ph paper into the sample.PRECAUTION (COLORIMETRIC)   9.

  Forsample 2, I repeated the same procedure above. 8.  Ileft the probe in the mixture for 60 to 90 seconds until the reading stabilizedand then took my reading.7.  Irinsed the probe with distilled water and immersed the probe into the mixture.6.  Iset the temperature compensation manually by adjusting the temperature over arange of 0?to 100?C.

5.  Ipushed the ph/mv key until the annunciators indicated the desired mode. 4.  Ipoured the mixture into a sample cup andturned the ph meter on.

3.  Iused the electric mixer to mix the sample until I had smooth mixture.2.  Iadded 25g of bentonite into the mixing cup along with my already measuredwater.1.  Forsample 1, I measured 350ml of water in the measuring cylinder.PROCEDURE (ELECTROMETRIC)  6.  Forsample 2, I repeated the same procedure above.

5.  Afterthe colour of the test paper stabilized, I matched the colour of the upper sideof the paper which had not had any contact with the mud, against the standardcolour chart.4.  Ipoured the mixture into a sample cup and tore off and placed a short strip ofph paper on the surface of the sample.3.  Iused the electric mixer to mix the sample until I had smooth mixture.

2.  Iadded 25g of bentonite into the mixing cup along with my already measuredwater.1.  Forsample 1, I measured 350ml of water in the measuring cylinder.PROCEDURE (COLORIMETRIC)          5g of salt (CaCl)350ml of water25g of bentoniteSample 2  350ml of water25g of bentoniteSample 1SAMPLES USED FOR THE EXPERIMENT Fig 4. A diagram of a ph meter.                                 Fig 3. Diagramof a ph paper.

                              Fig 2. Diagramof a weighing balance.        5.  Weighingscale4.

  Measuringcylinder3.  Spatula2.  Mixer1.  Phmeter Electrometric method        Fig1.diagram of a mixer                  5.  Weighingscale4.

  Measuringcylinder3.  Spatula2.  Mixer1.  Phpaper   Colorimetric MethodEXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS            Ph is the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ionconcentration in gram moles per litre. In a neutral solution, the hydrogen ion(H+) and the hydroxyl ion (OH-) concentrations are the same, with each equal to10-7. A ph of 7 indicates that it is neutral. A ph below 7 indicatesan increase in acidity, while a ph above 7 indicates an increase in alkalinity.

The methods used to determine the ph in this experiment are the colorimetricmethod and the electrometric method.INTRODUCTION           Contents ABSTRACT. 2 INTRODUCTION.. 4 EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS. 5 SAMPLES USED FOR THE EXPERIMENT. 7 PROCEDURE (COLORIMETRIC). 8 PROCEDURE (ELECTROMETRIC).


13            Ph or hydrogen ion concentration is used to express thedegree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance. In the case of drilling mud, theyare always designed to be alkaline (i.e., a ph>7). Therefore, it is veryimperative that the ph is determined, because having a high concentration ofhydrogen ions in our drilling mud, poses serious problems. The viscosity ofbentonite will be least affected if the ph is within the range of 7 to 9.5.

Above this, the viscosity will increase and may give viscosities that are toohigh for good drilling properties. Also, for reducing shale problems, a ph of8.5 to 9.5 appears to give the best hole stability and control over mudproperties. Corrosion is also another problem caused by low ph. The corrosionof metal is increased if it comes into contact with an acidic fluid.

So, ahigher ph would be desirable to protect pipe and casing from corrosion.ABSTRACT                                Date Submitted: 29-01-2018.Date Performed: 26-01-2018. 15CN03275NWOGBO CHINEDU BRIGHTBYA REPORT ON EXPERIMENT 4-DETERMINATION OF HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION OF AGIVEN VOLUME OF MUD.PETROLEUM ENGINEERING LABORATORY                                                                                PET327   COVENEANT UNIVERSITY, CANNANLAND OTA, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA.DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING