Patient with renal insufficiencyare at risk of developing a rare but serious complication (Nephrogenic systemicfibrosis) if injected with a Gadolinium Contrast Medium. Precautionary measuressuch as blood test must be done to ensure normal functioning of the kidneyprior to MRI (Waikhom, et al., 2011). MRI produces an excellent image, thus, it became an essential diagnostictest. However, not everyone is fit for MRI such as people with implants(containing Iron).
In the past, people with pacemakers (device that regulatesirregular heartbeat) are contraindicated for MRI scan due to possibility oflife-threatening complication (MRI scan, 2015; Magnetic resonance, anon).Nevertheless, studies suggest that well-planned multidisciplinary management will qualify a person to safely undergoMRI. Appropriate safety measures, extensive observation and monitoring and thepresence of the necessary medical team must be observed during and after MRI (Bovenschulte, et al., 2013) MRI uses a strong magnet, strong enough to toss awheelchair inside the room, damage defibrillator, drug pumps, hearing aids andother ferromagnetic materials, hence, vital safety procedures must be observed.It doesn’t involve radiation, thus, vulnerable pregnant women and babies canundergo with the test if it is necessary (MRI scan, 2015).
Currently, there is a lack of consensus andevidence that MRI causes unwanted damage to the fetus (Bulas, et al., 2013). Onthe other hand, it is advisable to perform MRI during the third trimester andusing contrast agent must be avoided as it can cross the placental barrier. (Magneticresonance, anon). No data has beenestablished to prove risk from radio frequency and magnetic field during MRI, making MRI as one of the safest diagnostic test currentlyavailable (MRI scan, 2015). Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) is a non-invasive scanning technique without the use of ionizingradiation that generates three dimensional images.
Powerful magnetic energy andradiofrequency pulses are utilized to generate anatomical images of the body. Itis the preferred test for non-bony parts of the body. As compared with other CTscan, MRI produces clearer image for the spinal cord, ligaments, tendon, andbrain. It is one of the preferred test forcardiac, lung, cancer, stroke and neuro function assessment (Magnetic resonance, anon).MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Specificareas of the body are better assessed in MRI than in CT scan, such as brain,internal organs specifically in the pelvis, and joints (knees and shoulders) (CTscan, anon).
It may be surprising that MRI produces a valuable image inskeletal disease as solidified tissues do not produce signal during the scan.This can be rationalized by the evidence that MRI provides images of the insideand surrounding joint of the bone marrow (Rockall, et al. 2013).A contrast media is being administered during the scan to enhance theimage quality (Pedicelli, G. et al., anon). However, intravenous contrast may harm patients with renal impairment, hence kidneyfunction must be verified prior to a scan. Patient with asthma and multipledrug allergy may have a life-threatening reaction (bronchospasm, laryngealedema) to contrast media.
(Rockall, et al. 2013). Special protocol is being followed for thiscases such as the administration of antihistamine (hydrocortisone). According to Radiologyinfo.
org,there is no definitive evidence that small dose of radiation from CT scan cancause cancer. However, a group of researcher, Brenner, et al 2007, suggestedthat radiation from CT scan is one of the contributing factor for cancer in theUnited States (0.4 % in 1991-1996).
To address this issue, the State and Federal laws required CT scanmachines to technicians to deliver thelowest possible radiation but creating a high-quality image (Mclntyre, R., etal., anon).
Utilization of CT scan as a diagnostic tool has greatly increased due toits promising advantages. Improvement in CT scan has resulted to lesserexposure to radiation as compared to radiation acquired during long flights bythe airline customers (Pedicelli, G., anon). It is ahigh-quality diagnostic test that allows precise acquisition of the measurement(shape, size and location) of internal organs specifically of soft tissues and blood vessels (McCollough, et al.,2009). It is a specialized tool that provides accurateanatomical information and helps medical team for the detection, diagnosis andtreatment of a certain disease. It provides a comprehensive, cross-sectionalviews of most tissue.
It is usually the best technique to detectvarious types of cancer since CT scan can provide detail on the existence of a tumor,its size, exact location and degree of involvement with neighboring tissue (CTscan, Anon). CT scan is also used to guide doctors to perform proceduressuch as CT guided biopsy and radiofrequency ablation (CT scan, anon). v Godfrey Hounsfield, a British engineer whoinvented CT scan in 1972 (A history, anon). Other names for thistest: Computed tomography scan, CAT scan, and spiral or helical CT.
CT SCAN Diagnostic imaging is one of the important investigative instrument fornumerous human infirmities. It has a vital role in diagnosing conditions,monitoring therapy response and predicting treatment outcome. Radiology imaginghas numerous specialties with divergent principles, techniques, strengths andlimitations (The future, 2010). This review highlights some of the commonlyutilized contemporary diagnostic technique such as MPI-NM (Myocardial PerfusionImaging- Nuclear Medicine) and its role in evaluating cardiac disease, and MAG3scan and its function in assessing a renalproblem. It also includes a brief review of CT scan (computed tomography) andMRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and PET-CT (Positron Emission Testing) theirstrength, limitations and applications. Estimated design and cost of a patientwith myocardial infarction is also included.