Part 17000 BCE Agriculture begins to develop in Mesopotamia: From History Textbook pg 58Mesopotamia was land between the Tigris and the Euphrates River. Agriculture started to develop when Mesopotamians used irrigation, a way to supply water to an area, on the Tigris and Euphrates River. Mesopotamians dug canals that connected basins to ditches, so it brought water to the field, so people could use the water to farm. Mesopotamia used the water for agriculture and they got wheat and barely, which were two important things for Mesopotamians. Along the foods they got from agriculture, Mesopotamians also got fish, meat, and dates. Many people tried using large projects such as constructing buildings, and digging irrigation systems. That was called the division o labor, or having a worker specialise in a task. Agriculture was a very important system in Mesopotamia, and helped a lot of people 2. C. 3100 BCE Menes becomes the first pharaoh of Egypt: From History Textbook pg 91The first pharaoh to rule Egypt was King Menes, who rose to power in Upper Egypt in 3100 BCE. Menes was the first pharaoh, and founded the first dynasty, but some people do not believe that, and believe that Menes was just a myth. Menes wanted to unify Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. To accomplish that, Menes’ armies invaded and took over Lower Egypt. Then Menes married a woman who was the princess of Lower Egypt, so King Menes ruled both sides of Egypt, and brought them together. Menes wore two crowns to represent the unification and leadership of Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. After a while, Menes combined the crowns. Menes built a new capital city near the Nile Delta, called Memphis. Memphis was a political and cultural center for Egypt. Once Menes died, other pharaohs who ruled after Menes also wore the same double crown like King Menes. 3. 1770 BCE Hammurabi of Babylon issues his written set of laws: Found on History textbook pg 75 and Hammurabi DBQ packet Hammurabi was leader who created a set of unfair laws called Hammurabi’s Code. Hammurabi fought many people in many battles to gain power, and brought Mesopotamia to his new capital, the Babylonian Empire. Hammurabi made a set of 282 laws called Hammurabi’s Code, that dealt with almost everything in daily life. There were laws for loans, trading, marriage, adultery, babies, slaves, theft, injury and tons more. Hammurabi’s Code was written on steles, and only one has been found in good condition, and were written in cuneiform, or wedge shaped writing. A stele was a large pillar like stone that laws were carved on. Hammurabi’s laws were unfair because social class in his laws were a big thing, because injuring a pregnant slave girl was a lower penalty than injuring a pregnant girl in a rich family. Anyone was able to see the laws on Hammurabi’s Code, from rich to poor.4. C. 1000 BCE Phoenicians begin to trade all around the Mediterranean: From History textbook pg 78-79 Along the Mediterranean Sea, there was a place called Phoenicia, that was not a place with good military power, and was ruled by other governments. Phoenicia also did not have much resources, and their trading route was blocked by mountains and neighbors. Dedicated to find a way to trade, Phoenicians started to sail, and they became expert sailors. While sailing to different places, travelers sailed to Egypt, Greece, Italy, Sicily, and Spain. Phoenicians traded wood, silverwork, slaves, and ivory carvings. Along their way, they also founded several colonies. Phoenicia later started to grow wealthy from trading. The most greatest achievement of the Phoenicians was the alphabet. The alphabet made talking and writing easier.5. C. 965 BCE Solomon becomes king of the Israelites: Found on page 229 on History Textbook King Solomon became king, and was King David’s son. Solomon was a strong king and expanded his kingdom and made kingdoms such as Egypt and Phoenicia. Egypt and Phoenicia were King Solomon’s allies and friends. King Solomon traded with his allies, and with all of the richies he earned from trading, Solomon built a great temple in Jerusalem. The temple they built was known as the center of life and faith for King Solomon and the Israelites. King Solomon was a great king for the people in Jerusalem, because of building the temple and expanding in Egypt and Phoenicia. After Solomon died, there was a revolt on who should become king. The conflict with the people made Israel tear apart, into two kingdoms known as Judah and Israel.Part 21. C 4500 BCE Agricultural communities develop in Egypt: Found on page 89 on History Textbook In Egypt, agriculture was very important, and the Nile River made it easier. Even though not much rain fell in Egypt, more rainfall went to the south of Egypt, so it flooded the Nile River. The Nile was a very important river, that helped supply water for farming. The Nile’s floods flowed, causing rich silt around it, and silt became very significant in farming. The first people to move into the Nile Valley were Hunter-gatherers, who settled along the Nile in small villages. The Hunter-gatherers grew wheat and barley. The Egyptians also built canals, to lead the water from the Nile to their fields. With the agriculture, Egyptians ate foods such as barley, fruits, and vegetables. With Egypt’s good agriculture, many people might have wanted to try taking some, but Egypt had the Meditterranean Sea and the Red Sea, which helped Egypt for protection. 2. C 3100 BCE Sumerians create the world’s first writing system The world’s first writing system was the greatest Sumerian invention to exist. The first type of writing that the Sumerians created was cuneiform, or wedge shaped writing. The Sumerians also existed a long time ago, so instead of using pencils or paper, the Sumerians used a clay tablet and a stylus to write on the tablet. The first use of cuneiform was for buisness records. Scribes would track everything that people traded with other people. Also, governments hired scribes, so scribes got very high on social class rankings. After writing to track what people have traded, Sumerians wrote about history, grammar, math, the law, literature, stories, sayings, songs, and poems.