# P4 A few examples of imposed loads are: desks,

P4Dead load isthe weight of all materials of construction incorporated into the building.This means anything that is a fixed part of the building is considered a deadload.

To be considered as a dead load the object must be physically attached tothe structure. A few examples of a dead load would be: Doors, windows, ceilingsystems, cabinets. Imposed load is defined as the load that is not permanentand can be variable. This means imposed load is anything that can be moved inthe house. A few examples of imposed loads are: desks, cupboards, filling cabinets,people. Wind load acts both on the main structure and on the individualcladding units. The structure must be secure so that the building doesn’t getblown away.Concurrentforces are two or more forces who intersect at the same point during an action.

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An example of a concurrent force would be when two people are standing at each endof a rope and both pull it in their direction. The forces are going to be concurrentbecause they will both intersect at the same place which is going to be in themiddle of the rope. A non-concurrent force is two or more forces whose vectorsare the same but act in opposite directions while doing an action. An exampleof a non-concurrent force is when you are driving.

Both your hands are parallelon the steering wheel and both are applied when turning the wheel left or rightcausing the car to turn. One hand is pushing the steering wheel while the otheris pulling it.      Point load isthe load which acts over a distance. Because of the concentration over thesmall distance the load may be considered as acting on a point. A point load isdenoted by ‘P’. Distributed load is that acts over a considerable length whichIs measurable. Distributed load is measured as per unit length.

Compressive stress isthe pressure that is on a material when weight is applied to it. It is used in constructionto change the shape or make an object smaller by using different amount ofweight. An example of this would be if you have a ball of clay.

If you squashthe ball with both your palms it will become flat because of all the pressure beingapplied to it. Tensile stress is the resistance of an object until the point itsabout to break. Tensile stress refers to a material that is being stretched outor pulled apart by a force. A tensile stress test is used in construction on amaterial to determine its: Elastic modulus, Ultimate tensile stress, modulus oftoughness etc. In a test, strain is applied to a material at a constant rateand the stress that is needed to maintain the rate is then recorded. Shearingstress is a force that causes layers or parts to slide over each other inopposite directions. An example is two rocks rubbing in opposite directions. Bendingstress is the normal stress that an object encounters when it is subjected to alarge load at a point which makes the object bend and become fatigued.

Bendingstress occurs when operating industrial equipment and in concrete and metallicstructures when they are subjected to a tensile load.         P51.       Thebehaviour that compressive stress will have on the bridge is that it willimpact the size overtime. It will compress the foundation used to support thebridge which will cause shortening of the bridge. The bending stress behaviourwill make the bridge weaker as it will start bending when there is a large loadand it can’t hold it. Tensile stress behaviour will cause the bracing on thebridge to expand and stretch until the point that it can stand before breaking.Shearing stress will cause the condition of the bridge to go weak as it willmake the parts collide and slide over each other causing them to go morefragile. Torsion stress will twist the metal bars on the bridge, changing theshape of the structure and making it less durable.

2.      A downward shear force acting on the cross­-section of the left­hand­ side free body of a cut, or an upward shear force acting on the cross-­sectionof the right­ hand­ side free body of the cut, is defined as a positive shearforce.  Negative shear force is the exactopposite as it tries to push down the left side of the beam.      The difference between positiveand negative bending moment is that if tension due to bending momentis at bottom side or compression at top side of the beam, then it is calledpositive bending moment.

Negative bending moment is the opposite as thereis tension at the top and compression at the bottom side of the beam.