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s2 {font: 12.0px Times; letter-spacing: 0.0px}span.s3 {font: 11.0px Arial; letter-spacing: 0.0px}span.Apple-tab-span {white-space:pre} The effects of colour on the learning process have sparked interests that have generated numerous studies, most of which have tried to apply these said effects in educational settings.

The said effects stem from the inherent impact of colour on the psychological and physiological reasoning of individuals – particularly emotions (Küller, Mikellides & Janssens, 2008). Shown in two independent researches, a more specialized focus on the relationship between colour hues and memory allowed a deeper analysis and understanding of the mental reactions to colour. These two studies then confirmed through their findings that a significant correlation is indeed present between the two variables. A diversity of colour hues within text evidently showed a positive impact in performance in several tasks as compared to plain black text. In today’s society however students often spend several hours studying papers and notes, exposing themselves to large amounts of monochromatic texts. Despite the supported notion that colour hues may aid in memory encoding and retention, black texts are still very much common in educational institutions  – displaying a disregard towards the potentially beneficial effects of coloured text implementation on visual working memory (Li & Saiki, 2014).

  The cognitive and memory processes of students, especially those at a younger age can be highly influenced by a number of factors (Eysenck, 2011). Huchendorf’s (2007) findings emphasize and support the concept that colors do indeed promote a higher level of memory performance. Therefore, it does not still seem plausible to have plain black text as the common medium for instruction and education purposes for younger children, but rather colored text based on color semantics. Spending long hours reviewing monochromatic black texts causes students to quickly lose interest and retain less information overall; therefore, learning methods should be maximized, allowing for the optima knowledge processing. The method in which one processes information, however, is often affected by a number of components – such as amount of attention given, decay over time and the innate capacity of the individual – which determine the memory performance of an individual (Eysenck, 2011). The lack of investment given by readers to plain black test is particularly notable in how color could potentially increase the possibility of environmental stimuli to be encoded, stored and retrieved successfully (Dzulkifli & Mustafar, 2013).  According to Wright (1984) in the Theory of Color Psychology and Color Harmony, colours and their subsequent hues considerably influence various psychological modes, behaviors and even cognitive processes.

This lends reason to the notion that colour perception may also influence processes such as learning and consequentially improve memory performance in young children. In numerous sectors and communities, individuals often find difficulty in understanding basic language skills such as comprehension, literacy and grammar. Due to the demand for higher academic achievement and overall better memory performance, the maximization of cognitive potential and performance is often stressed in educational settings (Dzulkifli & Alias 2012). Various techniques which could possibly aid in knowledge processing have, therefore, been sought out by a number of institutions. Moreover, as the discernment of the process in which knowledge processing and retrieval affect cognitive ability further progressed, several attempts to address these needs have been made. Given the innate impact of colour on attention and psychological moods, its pedagogical applications have been further studied as a way to improve an individual’s level of cognitive thinking (Olsen, 2010).

Colour semantics have already been widely used as a supplementary aid within areas that have learning difficulties, either behavorial or clinical, in language comprehension. Bryan’s (1997) “Colourful Semantics” utilized colours in order to teach sentence structures to children with SLI (Speech Language Impairments). Through this, the children developed improved vocabularies and language skills.

Cernin, Keller & Stoner (2010) observed the exact same particular effect on patients with Alzheimer’s disease. While numerous studies have already tested on several communities, the possibility of teaching a non-vernacular language by applying colour semantics has yet to be researched. As the demand for competent language skills increases, there is a need to investigate the potential of colour semantics to be used in the formulation of visual aid reviewers for young students. Given the currently available information and analysis, the utilization of colours in reviewers will likely improve the functionality of the sensory register as the main determinant of information encoded and attention allotted to a given task (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). Furthermore, as purported by Peterson and Peterson (1959), rehearsal is necessary to develop short-term memory into long-term memory; therefore, it can be assumed that reviewers utilizing colourful hues will encourage students to develop more comprehensive language and grammar skills. Through the application in reviewers, the concept of colour semantics will be able to improve student performance through pedagogical means. Moreover, as the human brain is naturally drawn to the most appealing visuals, it seems plausible to utilize the presence of color in visual aids to appeal to the attention of language students and foster interest, increasing academic achievement.

There is a significant amount of literature that has been published on the possible effects of color on psychological function, retention and memory performance. Although there are a few researches that disprove this claim, the majority of the researches argue that there is a significant correlation between color and memory. Because of this we can assume that there are possible applications of color to daily cognitive tasks such as studying or reviewing as stated by Grubert, Carlisle and Eimer (2016). In a set of experiments, Küller, Mikellides and Janssens (2008), observed the various psychological effects of colour on human behaviour in terms of both mood and arousal as well as possible physiological implications. In particular, the study focused on a comparison of coloured room impact – grey, red and blue – on the emotions and behaviour of the participants.

According to the findings of the study, the notion that colours had an impact on such tenants was confirmed to a certain extent. Furthermore, the association of strong colours (particularly red) evoking a more excited and positive state was strengthened although accompanied with the deceleration of heart rates. This particular study supported the hypotheses of Soldat, Sinclair, and Mark (1997) that the red is considered positive and a detriment to cognitive performance, whereas blue is related to negativity and cognitive performance enhancement. Furthering the analysis on the correlation between colour and cognitive performance, the results of several existing researches contrasted heavily – proposing that colours either improve, deter or have no effect on individual performance. In support of a positive correlation, however, Cousins (2013) asserted that an exposure to the colours yellow and blue increased the number of saccades and consequently improved memory retention. Contrastingly, other researches suggest that the role of colour in memory is specific to only certain modes (Olsen, 2010). One study suggests that colour can only significantly affect visual working memory encoding based upon features of an object, while another purports that congruency between colours and words must be present to increase retention rate (Li & Saiki, 2014; Olurinola & Tayo, 2015). Although a number of studies assert a positive colour-performance correlation, other existing researches still contradict this claim.

To further examine the nature of this association in a more specific environment, authors Elliot et al. (2007) provided extended insight on the relationship between red and avoidance motivations. According to their findings, an exposure to red prior to testing correlated to a decline in test performance attributed to a negativity bias. In Huchendorf’s (2007) analysis of the effects of colour on memory, no correlation was found between colour hue (warm, cool or white) perception and word recall percentage. Similarly, another study also remarked no significant correlation between the two variables – colour and test scores (Larsson & von Stumm, 2014). However, this was found to be contradictory to the results of a previous study which asserted that participants who reviewed using green paper outperformed others in the post-test (Martinez, Oberle & Thompson Jr., 2010).

As generalized studies on the said topic, two succeeding researches reviewed and examined the details of past literature to consolidate the influence of color on memory performance (Dzulkifli & Mustafar, 2013; Elliot, 2015). As meta-analyses, both researches investigated the role of colour in attention, emotional arousal and memory processes. The two studies further asserted the possibility of colour to increase the encoding and retrieval of environmental stimuli given future research. However, the issues and shortcomings of past studies for future recommendations were forwarded and current limitations were addressed. As colour-performance association seems plausible, possible applications are suggested. As a possible application of the concept, Bryan (1997) proposed the strategy for teaching sentence structures to children known as Colourful Semantics.

In order to replicate and extend the results of this particular teaching therapy, the strategy was applied again in a research under clinical conditions (Bolderson et al., 2011). Utilizing various forms of assessment for the participants, the study tested the overall effectivity of the strategy in teaching children suggesting that improvements were present in the performance of children. Similarly, Li and Yee’s (2017) research study also resulted in the increased development of sentence comprehension and ordering skills of pupils in a classroom setting after the implementation of colourful semantics. In this paper, the correlation was supported through means of a triangulation method utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data.

With such positive results in consideration, a number of succeeding studies further extended the analysis of colour in improving performance of specific groups and sectors. A number of literature has been published focusing on the feasibility of colour prompts as means of cognitive skill improvement. Authors Cernin, Keller & Stoner (2010) introduced the  possibility of an application of colour prompts in order to enhance the object recognition of Alzheimer’s patients. The results of their study suggested that colour prompts significantly enhanced the memory retention of Alzheimer’s patients and their general cognitive abilities, lending support towards additional research. Meanwhile, another study focused on Sri Lankan children with intellectual disabilities in terms of narrative skills (Hettiarachchi, 2015). As a result of colour perception intervention prior to the post-test, qualitative and quantitative narrative skills generally improved. Overall, majority of existing literature have asserted that colour plays an important role in cognitive performance. Based on that assumption, other researches have also presented possible applications of these concepts.

However, these studies have failed to recognize in entirety the possible attributions of participants which can affect the results of researches (Elliot et. al., 2007).

Besides the lack of participant screening (i.e. non-participation of colour-blind people), the age and attention given by these participants should also be taken into account in these types of analyses. Moreover, current research is lacking overall in terms of coverage and comprehensiveness. The correlation between colour and memory performance as well as the applications of such knowledge in teaching therapies and strategies has been extensively studied (Dzulkifli & Mustafar, 2013; Elliot, 2015).

However, less attention has been paid to the particular groups in which these teaching strategies may be applicable. One of the large groups that has not been extensively studied is the non-vernacular speakers who have difficulty in second language skills. As a result of learning a second language, these people experience difficulty in basic interlanguage comprehension in comparison to first language speakers.

Very little research has been made to cater to this setting, and as a result, no comprehensive theory seems to exist. Due to the lack of previous investigation, it is presently not clear as to what extent these applications of colour psychology can possibly affect student performance. Despite preliminary examinations of causes, the specific correlation is unclear. The question remains whether or not the utilization of colourful hues in learning materials can effectively improve student performance in class. Moreover, the manner in which this outcome is accomplished is open to question. Based on the analysis of previous studies, evidence suggests varying correlations, therefore, it is desirable to examine the factors of which in more detail.

Additional studies on the effectivity of the integration of colour prompts in improving student performance are currently needed due to the lack of information. Particularly, the usage of colour-based visual aid reviewers in order to improve language skills of second language speakers should be analyzed as a possible application. It is also desirable to carry out testings to verify the aforementioned effectivity. Hence, different respondents should be surveyed and asked to participate in order to arrive at a feasible conclusion. As the interest in the integrations of colour in educational settings has been growing over the course of recent history, colour in text has been shown to have significant effects on the psychological processes of an individual and consequently, one’s mood and behavior (Wright, 1984).

Given this notion, these effects could be translated or applied in order to aid student memory retention as supported by previous literature. Moreover, the varying hues and shades could provoke intensified interest and colour perception among students. The aim of this paper is to study these possible effects in addition to increased student performance as a result of the implementation of colourful hues in review materials of students.The objectives of the study are as follows:To test the impact of coloured text on the improvement of the English comprehension and academic capabilities of a studentTo determine the magnitude of the impacts of colour on memory retentionTo further develop current teaching or learning strategies based on coloured text This research studies the probable impact of the usage of colourful English reviewers on the academic performance and lesson comprehension of Grade One and Two students. A total of two mixed-gender classes will be surveyed from the Grade One and Two levels of Pineda Elementary School.

As an application of the Triangulation Method as proposed by Kulkarni (2013), data will be collected through multiple approaches – both quantitative and qualitative. Participants will be subjected to a pre-test and a post-test along with focus group interviews to provide a more comprehensive measure of impact. Through the administration of these methods, the one-week long study will be able to thoroughly address the lack of clarity in terms of the extents of the impact of colour-based reviewers on student performance.