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0px ‘Times New Roman’; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 15.0px}span.s1 {font-kerning: none}span.s2 {font-kerning: none; background-color: #ffffff}span.s3 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #0000ff}span.s4 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none}span.s5 {font-kerning: none; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #000000}span.Apple-tab-span {white-space:pre}Abello-Contensse, C.

(2008). Age and the critical period hypothesis, ELT Journal, Volume 63, Issue 2, 1 April 2009, Pages 170–172, https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccn072Christian Abello-Contensse provided the key terms in his paper where he stated that children acquiring  a new language would have a better result in acquiring the language than when an adult tries. Stated that CPH is the period where optimal level of language attainment could happen. There are four (4) main points that were debated in the study, and these are 1.) the “multiple critical periods”,  2.) “the non-existence of one or more critical period”, 3.

) “‘sensitive’, not critical period”, and 4.) “gradual and continual decline from childhood to adulthood”. Some studies negate the claim where in a child could have a better outcome than adults and while other studies support it. It concludes that both young and old language learners would be able to learn the language and that other than age, there are other factors affecting second language learning. Abello-Contensse’s paper would be helpful in identifying how age affects second language learning.

It could be noted that this author is credible because of the book he has written with other authors about bilingualism and multilingualism indicating that this author is knowledgeable in his works. Archibald, J., Roy, S., Harmel, S., Jesney, K.

, Dewey, E., Moisik, S., & Lessard, P. (2006). A Review of the Literature on Second Language Learning. Retrieved from http://www.acpi.ca/documents/litreview.

pdfThis review of related literature written by  The Language Research Center (LRC) of the University of Calgary that was centered on second language learning. The paper included some investigators that examined their work. The paper was intended for future researchers about learning a language to the people residing in a state called Alberta.

The paper is centered on the effects of learning second language to a person’s first language. It also stated that introduction to a second language would not have any negative effects on a person’s first language; in fact, it strengthens skills in speaking and cognition. This could somehow negate the claims that a person’s first language could be affected if the second language being acquired is more practiced.

Although there are some points about the teaching methods that could be used by teachers in addressing children acquiring a second language. This work could either help or support my bibliography on how age affects a person’s ability to learn a new language. Bialystok, E, Hakuta, K & Wiley, E.

(n.d). Critical Evidence: A Test of the Critical Period Hypothesis for Second Language Acquisition. Retrieved from https://web.stanford.edu/~hakuta/www/docs/CriticalEvidence.

pdfEllen Bialystok, Kenji Hakuta and Edward Wiley conducted a study the had the participants of immigrants with backgrounds of Spanish and Chinese speakers. It had been stated that language proficiency does decline as the age of exposure to the second language increases. They also stated that according to a theory, the identified patterns could be the one hindering the way of learning. In addition, two (2) characteristics were stated that were used to assume the presence of the critical period hypothesis.

There could be some negations seen throughout the study about the age related claims. There was claim about the claims on the periodic ranges of the Critical Period Hypothesis. The work defined Critical Period Hypothesis as something that is used to differentiate the success of a child and the failure of adults in learning a second language.

In the end, they have concluded their study stating that the success of learning a second language declines with age alongside with other studies that support this claim. Birdsong, D., (n.d). The Critical Period Hypothesis for Second Language Acquisition: Tailoring the Coat of Many Colors. Retrieved from https://liberalarts.utexas.

edu/frenchitalian/_files/pdf/davidbpdfs/TailoringCoat_DBird.pdfThe work written by David Birdsong about the Critical Period Hypothesis for second language learning focused on the period of the said critical period hypothesis. In his paper, he believed that as the brain matures, the ability of a person to attain a language at optimal level would be difficult. There were different claims that support and negate the claim that the perceived real period for learning a new language is from infancy to puberty as some stated that it could be early or later.

Birdsong’s claim about the periodic range of Critical Period Hypothesis is somehow supporting Lennberg’s claim about the Critical Period Hypothesis ending at puberty, could be seen in the paper of Johnson and Newport (1989). Although some of the sources that were used are old and are out of date. He also identified other aspects concerning the Critical Period Hypothesis which may be of use as a source as a support to claims with the same periodic range.

 Hoff, E. (2014). Language Development. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

  Erika Hoff from the Florida Atlantic University wrote a book titled Language Development, is all about language acquisition and learning. Some of the topics that are seen in the book is the Critical period hypothesis and the Second Language Acquisition. There are other subtopics supporting claims that language can be best learned at an optimal level at a certain age and period in time. She also identified some language theories that are well-known and commonly used when researching about language learning.

The book also tackles on the the methods that could be seen in the second language acquisition during a child’s childhood. There are also useful information in the book that could support and negate claims that were claimed in the studies. Hoff also used famous and known theories that she used throughout the book.

Although there are various subtopics in the book, there are topics that are relevant to the topic of Critical Period Hypothesis which would be the focus of the Extended Paper. Johnson, J.S & Newport, E.

L, (1989). Critical Period Effects in Second Language Learning: The Influence of Maturational State on the Acquisition of English as a Second Language. Cognitive Psychology, 21,pp. 60-99. Retrieved from https://msu.edu/~ema/803/Ch12-LanguageStructure/1/JohnsonNewport89.

pdfA study written by Jacqueline S. Johnson and  Elissa L. Newport from the University of Illinois, started off with basing their study on the hypothesis by Lenneberg (1967) stating that learning a language could only be learned during the period of infancy to puberty. It is centralized on whether a child’s acquisition in language is better than an adult. A theory called the ‘exercise hypothesis’ is the hypothesis wherein it is believed that if a child is not exposed to L1 at an early age, it would be difficult for the child to learn a new language.

On the other hand, the maturational hypothesis is the hypothesis that claims that as the child’s brain matures, so does its’ ability to learn any new languages; however, with a follow up that learning a new language declines over time. This study was able to differentiate CPH by the performances of their participants. Supported the notion that acquiring a new language, the children has the advantage.

On another note, this study stated that language may still be learned during the period of adulthood. This support the claim of Singleton (2005) seen in Birdsong’s paper wherein they have stated that the maturation of the brain may have had some effects in learning a second language. This could help me with my research on Critical Period Hypothesis as it is all about the effects of a mature brain in language learning. Krashen, S.

D., (1981). Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning, Retrieved from http://www.sdkrashen.

com/content/books/sl_acquisition_and_learning.pdfStephen D. Krasher from the University of California wrote a study about Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning.

His study mainly focuses more on how adults learn a second language. He introduced the “Monitor Theory” where he stated that “there are two independent systems for developing the ability” in learning a second language. He leaned towards grammar and how having the knowledge in the acquisition of language may be used in the second language learning for adults. On the other hand, Krasher’s work could be used as a support to claims negating that adults could not learn. This may be helpful in eliminating the claim the that adults can not learn a second language. This work proved that adults may learn a second language but not as fast and efficient as a child could. Even though this may not be considered as a main source, it would be helpful in discovering new claims made by other researchers seen in his study.

 Krashen, S. (2013). Second Language Acquisition: Theory, Applications, and some Conjectures. Retrieved from  http://www.sdkrashen.com/content/articles/krashen_sla.pdfIn a book written by Stephen Krasher titled Second Language Acquisition: Theory, Application, and Some Conjectures, he was able to define what the Language Acquisition Theory is and identify with the subtopics of four different hypothesis that compose the Language Acquisition Theory. These hypothesis are mainly the Acquisition-Learning, Natural Order, Monitor, and Comprehension Hypothesis.

The book was able to give visual representation on how he was able to formulate his claims on this topic. Although there are other subtopics which makes the whole research complete, the theories about Language Acquisition in what is most helpful in the reference of the essay focusing in Critical Period Hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition. The book is more on the application of the language like grammar and how participants could acquire an accent.

Krashen is one of the known contributors in Language Acquisition; thus, making his work reliable can somewhat valid to be used as a source in such topics concerning Second Language Acquisition. Schouten, A, (2009). Critical Period Hypothesis: Support, Challenge, and Reconceptualization.

 TESOL & Applied Linguistics, 9(1), pp.1-16. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/db4a/8d35ccafe508da724af55015415c5939479f.

pdfA paper written by Andy Schouten sought out to identify and provide studies that supported the claim that there is Critical Period Hypothesis in the learning of a second language. He analyzed and challenged the validity of some claims that were said to be  concerning the Critical Period Hypothesis in the attainment of a second language. He also identified some of basis used in defining the Critical Period Hypothesis that is now being reconceptualized because of the weakness that were seen during analysis. A notion has been supported that the attainment of a second language would would not have been fully maximize after the ‘end’ of the period of the CPH. It concluded that age does affect on learning a language; however some areas covering these statements are continued to be debated and researched on. This study could be used as a support to other studies with the same claim where age does have an effect in the second language learning. Vanhove, J.,(2013).

The Critical Period Hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition: A Statistical Critique and a Reanalysis. PLoS ONE, 8(7): e69172. Retrieved from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.

pone.0069172=printableThe journal about the statistics on the Critical Period Hypothesis of the learning of the second language which was written by Jan Vanhove, with the misfortune of Vanhove reanalyzing his sources in his journal because of some errors that could be seen in the reference section in his journal. The journal was mainly about the sensitivity of language learners with regards to age and how it mostly favors the children more than the adults. This somehow allows the children to be more susceptible in acquiring a new language than an adult could. The journal also mentioned that it leans more towards the ultimate attainment state of a second language learner than its rate of attainment. This means that attaining the second language at a specific time is greater than the rate of the acquisition. This supports the study of Lenneberg where he somehow stated that the best period for a child to learn a second language is between the age of infancy and puberty.

 The PLOS ONE Staff (2014) Correction: The Critical Period Hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition: A Statistical Critique and a Reanalysis. PLoS ONE 9(7): e102922. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102922http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0102922=printable