National University of Modern Languages, MultanResearch Proposal onSubmitted to

National University of Modern Languages, MultanResearch Proposal onSubmitted to ……………………………….Sir Salahuddin BhuttoSubmitted to…………………………….Sir Salahuddin BhuttoSubmitted by………………………………Muhammad Majid FarooqRoll No……………………………………….. 31419Subject……………………………………..…ARMClass……………………………………………MBA (1.5) WeekendNational University of Modern Languages, Multan”Perceptions of Teachers and Parents towardsrehabilitation of mentally challenged children in Multandivision.”National University of Modern Languages, MultanRESEARCH PROPOSALResearch Topic:”Perceptions of Teachers and Parents towards rehabilitation of mentally challengedchildren in Multan division.”Introduction:Special children are significant part of our society. According to the UN 10% of our population issuffering from disabilities. Approximately 2.54% of population is identified as having disability(Hameed, 2006).Children with mental retardation also called mentally challenged now a days, have hugepercentage in the population of disabled. Mentally retarded children were the cause to startthe special education and its related services throughout the globe.The definition of mental retardation has evolved over the years. Mental retardation, usuallydefined by an IQ of below 70 to 75, intellectual functioning below average level, combined withlimitations in the skills necessary for daily living (The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6thEdition.).American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) described the definition of mentalretardation in 1983 as “Mental retardation refers to the significantly sub-average, generalintellectual functioning resulting in or associated with the deficit in adaptive behavior andmanifested during the developmental period”.It is accepted world widely that every special child has also right to be educated like as normalchild. As a crucial part of disabled community, educational needs of mentally challengedchildren are different from other disabled. Special curriculum is designed to support mentallychallenged children to grow in all aspects of their lives (spiritual, moral, cognitive, emotional,imaginative, aesthetic, social and physical).MENTAL RETARDATION is one of our major health, welfare, social, and vocational problems.The National Council on Rehabilitation, in 1943, defined rehabilitation as the restoration ofhandicapped persons to the fullest physical, mental, social, vocational, and economicusefulness of which they are capable.National University of Modern Languages, MultanRehabilitation is the act of restoring something to its original state. Rehabilitation describesspecialized healthcare dedicated to improving, maintaining or restoring physical strength.Rehabilitation can also be explained as the process of helping an individual achieve the highestlevel of function, independence, and quality of life possible.Mental Health rehabilitation service is a service to help people recover from the difficulties oflonger-term mental health problems. It will help and support people who still find it difficult tomanage everyday life or get on with other people. It will aim to help you deal with problems, toget your confidence back, and to help you to live as independently as possible.Perception means the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses,or the way in which something is understood.Parent counselling should done towards rehabilitation management plan to provideinformation regarding the condition of the mentally retarded child. The counsellor shouldexplain child’s condition in simple words to the parents. Parents perception towardsrehabilitation basically depends upon counselling.So, the researcher will assess the Perceptions of Teachers and Parents and will try todetermine the Perceptions of Teachers and Parents towards rehabilitation of mentallychallenged children in Multan division.Introduction of the Problem:Usually parents have wrong beliefs, ideas and thoughts regarding causes and treatment of theirdisabled child. They blame each other for being responsible for the birth of such child due tolack of awareness. Parents tend to believe that the child would become normal in due course oftime. Hence counsellor should give correct information on the nature, causes and treatment ofmentally retarded child.Objectives of the Study:This study will focus the following specific objectives:• To evaluate the Perceptions of Teachers and Parents towards rehabilitation ofmentally challenged children in Multan division.• To explore the physical available teaching resources for mentally challenged children.National University of Modern Languages, MultanSignificance of the study:• The study will be significant for mentally challenged children, their teachers, parentsand society.• The study will be helpful to explore the Perceptions of Teachers and Parents towardsrehabilitation of mentally challenged children.• The study will also helpful to analyze whether special educational institutions haveresources to meet the rehabilitation needs of mentally challenged children.• Its findings will be helpful for persons with disabilities especially for mentally challengedchildren to reduce their dependency and improve their social status.Delimitations of the Study:Keeping in view the available time, human and financial resources the study will be delimited tomentally challenged children in Multan.Method and Procedure of Study:Research DesignThe study design will be descriptive in nature. Survey method will be used for the study.Questionnaire will be the instrument of study under survey method. So, researcher will usequalitative research methods.Population:To collect reliable and valid data, following three populations will be selected:Population-IHead teachers and teachers of special education institutions where mentally challengedchildren will be studying in Multan.Population-IIMentally challenged children of special education institutions from Multan division.National University of Modern Languages, MultanPopulation-IIIParents of mentally challenged children in Multan division.Sampling:Random sampling will be used. Interview schedule will be developed to explore informationfrom the respondents. Survey method will also be used to collect data.Sample-IFrom all head teachers and teachers of special education institutions of Multan 100 sampleswill be selected through simple random sampling.Sample-IIFrom mentally challenged students of special educational institutions of Multan 100 studentswill be selected through random sampling technique.Sample-IIIFrom all parents of mentally challenged children from Multan 100 parents will be selectedthrough simple random sampling.Research Tool:For the data collection three types of questionnaires will be developed to conduct the research.During the process of this study one questionnaire for teachers of mentally challengedstudents, second for mentally challenged students and third for parents of mentally challengedchildren will be prepared.Data Analysis:Data will be analyzed to the requirements of the topic in Statistical Package for Social Sciences(SPSS). After collecting the data it will be tabulated.Case Study:At the end of the research case study of three success stories of mentally challenged childrenwill also be introduced.National University of Modern Languages, MultanLITERATURE REVIEWAndrew T. Roach, Bradley C. Niebling (2008) describe Alignment in this article and work togetherto provide guidance for educators’ efforts to facilitate students’ progress toward desireacademic outcomes.Rehabilitation providers expressed particular concern about the effects of electronics andstimulant use on children’s sleep. Although caregivers believed that behavioral factors wererelated to children’s sleep, none of them mentioned stimulant use as a possible influence. Thissuggests that caregivers may be unaware of the connection between stimulant beverageconsumption and poor sleep. Caffeine consumption is becoming common among children andyouths globally. Our recent study showed that caffeinated beverages and other stimulant usewere significantly associated with poor sleep among college students in Chile. Increasingevidence has also shown that television viewing and computer use are related to too little sleepfor children. The National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll reported that caffeine intakeand the use of new technology are associated with shortened sleep among US children. Ourstudy underscores the need to educate children and caregivers about the influence of caffeineconsumption and screen time on sleep health. Educational intervention programs are neededto help parents understand that lifestyle behaviors may be related to sleep health.The family plays an important role in facilitating positive rehabilitation outcomes with adisabled client. Thus, families must be involved in the rehabilitation process. For this to occur,the nurse must identify the characteristics of the family unit. This article presents a frameworkthat supports the assessment of the family unit.Existing research suggests that positive perceptions play a central role in the coping process andassist us in dealing with the traumatic and stressful events. Not only do they benefit the parentsand the siblings in coping with the child, the disability, and the difficulties associated with it; butit also helps the family unit as a whole. The way in which a family functions, is influenced by theparent’s perception of their child’s difficulties. Parents with positive perceptions can help theother parents in the early stages of adjustment develop positive but realistic expectations. Anumber of studies have examined positive outcomes of stressful events. Even though theevents themselves may not have had favorable resolutions, outcomes include the perception ofbenefit from the stressful encounters, the acquisition of new coping skills and resources, theperception of growth related to their stress and the spiritual or religious transformation thatresults from the stressful experiences.National University of Modern Languages, MultanFinding, Conclusion and Recommendations:On the basis of analysis findings will be made, conclusion will be drawn and recommendationwill be suggested.National University of Modern Languages, MultanReferences:• Ackerman, P. T., Elardo, P. T., and Dykman, R. A. (1979). A psychosocial study ofhyperactive and learning disabled boys.J. Child Psychol.• Affleck, G., Allen, D. A., Tennen, H., McGrade, B. J., and Ratzan, S. (1985). Causality andcontrol cognitions in parents’ coping with chronically ill children.J. Social Clin. Psychol.• Affleck, G., McGrade, B. J., Allen, D. A., and McQueeney, M. (1985). Mothers’ beliefsabout behavioral causes for their developmentally disabled infant’s condition: What dothey signify?J. Pediatr. Psychol.• Bates, E. (1979). The emergence of symbols: Cognition and communication in infancy.San Diego, CA: Academic Press.• Jackson, Lewis B; Ryndak, (2009) The Dynamic Relationship Between Context,Curriculum, and Student Learning: A Case for Inclusive Education as a Research-basedPractice.• Blumberg, A. (1965). A comparison of the conceptions and attitudes of parents ofchildren in regular classes and parents of mentally retarded children.DissertationAbstracts.• Bodner-Johnson, B. (1986). The family environment and achievement of deaf students:A discriminant analysis.Except. Children• Boersma, F. J., and Chapman, J. W. (1982). Teachers and learning disabled children.J.School Psychol.• Boles, G. (1959). Personality factors in mothers of cerebral palsied children.Genet.Psychol. Monogr.