As Kretiner ( 1998 ) defined: “ the term motive derived from the Latin work movere, intending to travel.
” ( Ramlall, pg 53, 2004 ) Motivation has been examined widely and in-depth for a great figure of old ages and it has been in the Centre of involvement for assorted Fieldss. There are legion definitions of motive, both wide and specific, depending on the facet which is being viewed from. As per Meyer et Al. ( 2004 ), Kleinginna and Kleinginna ( 1981 ) after “ an extended multidisciplinary reappraisal ” reported 140 different definitions mentioning to motive. ( Meyer et al., 2004 )Huczynski and Buchanan ( 2007 ) defined motive as: “ the cognitive decision-making procedure through which purposive behaviour is initiated, energized, directed and maintained. ” ( Huczynski and Buchanan, pg 242, 2007 ) Locke and Latham ( 2004 ) stated that: “ the construct of motive refers to internal factors that impel action and to external factors that can move as incentives to action.
The three facets of action that motive can impact are way ( pick ), strength ( attempt ), and continuance ( continuity ). ” ( Locke and Latham, pg 388, 2004 ) Furthermore, they claimed that motive can act upon both the skill of people ‘s accomplishments and abilities and the manner and the grade in which these accomplishments and abilities are exploited. ( Locke and Latham, 2004 )Work motive is an facet of motive that, as Locke and Latham ( 2004 ) reported, many industrial and organisational ( I/O ) psychologists have focused specifically on at least since 1930. ( Locke and Latham, 2004 ) Pinder ( 1998 ) as cited in Meyer et Al. ( 2004 ) defined work motive: “ as a set of energetic forces that originates both within every bit good as beyond an person ‘s being, to originate work-related behaviour, and to find its signifier, way, strength, and continuance. ” ( Meyer et al., pg 992, 2004 ) With respect to motive in the concern field, as per Jobber and Lancaster ( 2006 ) “ merchandising ” is a portion of the concern activity which has attracted much treatment in comparing to other countries. As they indicated, “ merchandising ” has drawn so much attending as a procedure due to the fact that the sales representative of a company are “ the individual most of import nexus with the costumiers.
” ( Jobber and Lancaster, pg 4, 2006 ) The significance of the sales representative ‘s function forces the directors to concentrate on the sweetening of the sales representative ‘s public presentation. ( Boles et al., 2000 ) For that ground, there is a huge literature which has examined the major motive theories or other facets of the occupation design which can act upon in a minor or a greater grade the motive of sales representative and their public presentation degrees as good. Furthermore, there is besides a significantly big figure of research documents which deal with researching the connexion between motive of sales representative with the leading manner and behaviour of their gross revenues directors besides known as gross revenues direction research.
1.2 The life insurance industry
The life insurance industry is an of import and complex portion of the merchandising industry. Lynch and Mackay ( 1985 ) as cited in Crosby and Stephens ( 1987 ) stated that: “ the whole life insurance is a high acceptance service ”.
In peculiar, Crosby and Stephens ( 1987 ) documented that the life insurance industry is “ really abstract, complex, and focused on future benefits that are hard to turn out ( fiscal protection, etc. ). ” ( Crosby and Stephens, pg 404, 1987 ) To be more precise, what really is particular and interesting in the life insurance sector is that its merchandising activities are based on a future promise. In other words, the sales representative ‘s undertaking is to sell a service like a pension program or a wellness insurance which is intangible and the client is non cognizant of the clip he is traveling to necessitate it.
Additionally, Oliver ( 1973 ) as cited in Tyagi ( 1982 ) commented that the life insurance industry has an advantage in comparing to the other merchandising industries on the evidences that its sales representatives “ are allowed to work in an unstructured scene. A greater intersubject variableness over the steps can be expected than would be obtained with sales representatives in more structured environments ” ( Tyagi, pg 245, 1982 )
1.3 Purposes and Aims of the Research
The purpose of the peculiar thesis is to analyze the chief motive techniques that are being implemented by the gross revenues directors of a instead different and complex gross revenues industry as the life-insurance industry is. What will be attempted is to determine how the motive theories can be applied efficaciously in the twenty-first century.
Furthermore, what will besides be researched and evaluated is the function of the gross revenues directors and their importance in relation to the manner and the grade that they can really impact their gross revenues force. To be more precise, due to the deficiency of recent researches, this paper is an attempt to add up-to-date information sing the manner that the gross revenues directors can utilize assorted motive tools in order to accomplish high motive and public presentation degrees in their sales representative.To accomplish this end, there are some cardinal inquiries that should be examined and answered.
First of wholly, it is of import to happen out the significance of the fiscal inducements as a motive tool.Whether the importance and the value of assorted motive techniques varies depending on their age and their calling phase of the sales representative.How the motive techniques can be used in order to invariably actuate a successful sales representative and avoid him being unmotivated.
Last, a affair of concern is in what ways gross revenues directors can actuate low performing artists.At the undermentioned subdivisions of the thesis, the research paper will first show the major motive theories by foregrounding their chief points. A literature reappraisal subdivision sing the motive of sales representative will follow in order to critically discourse what has been research up until today. The following portion of the research paper will analyse and warrant the type method which was considered to be the most appropriate for roll uping the information and there will besides be presented inside informations mentioning to the procedure of the informations aggregation. In the treatment portion, the findings of the research will be reported and they will be compared to the bing literature and linked to the research inquiries.
Furthermore, the restrictions of this research will be noted so, this research paper will be characterized by objectiveness. Last, in the decision portion the cardinal points of the peculiar research will be summarized and the overall deductions of the research will be briefly pointed out.
2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
2.1 MOTIVATION THEORIES
There is a unusually great assortment in theories which attempt to analyze and warrant the manner that motive is really impacting employees ‘ behaviours. Harmonizing to Meyer et Al. ( 2004 ) and Locke and Latham ( 2004 ) every individual motive theory is uncomplete and there is no motive theory which has non been criticized. ( Meyer et al.
, 2004 and Locke and Latham, 2004 ) However, as Meyer et Al. ( 2004 ) pointed out the bulk of these theories “ make meaningful parts to our apprehension of what is evidently a complex procedure. ” ( Meyer et al., pg 992, 2004 ) In the same context, Locke ( 1991, 1997 ) as cited in Meyer et Al.
( 2004 ) denoted that: “ each of the different theoretical orientations offers a alone position and can be combined to organize a general theoretical account. ” ( Meyer et al. pg 992, 2004 )One of the oldest and possibly more extremely criticized methods sing motive was the Frederick ‘s Taylor ( 1911 ) Scientific Management attack. Harmonizing to this attack, as Huczynski and Buchanan ( 2007 ) stated employees are rewarded in a fiscal manner based on the productiveness and public presentation degrees.
In other words, Taylor viewed employees as “ coin-operated ”, who are entirely motivated by fiscal inducements. Taylor ‘s attack has been extremely disapproved on the evidences that it leaves out important facets of motive such as accomplishment, acknowledgment and occupation satisfaction and in general, it oversimplifies the complexness of the human nature and its demands. ( Huczynski and Buchanan, 2007 ) However, as per Ananaba ( 1981 ) despite the fact that the rules of Scientific Management are non considered to be “ motivational ”, they had a “ far-reaching consequence ” and were embraced by all types of motive theories. Ananaba ( 1981 ) Furthermore, Taylor ‘s attack resulted in several changes in the manner that the work is designed and his rules are influential in the managerial universe up until today. ( Ananaba, 1981 )As it was mentioned supra, there is a great figure of motive theories that have been expressed during the past old ages. However, these theories can be divided in two major classs: the content and the procedure theories. Bassett-Jones and Lloyd ( 2005 ) pointed out that content theories, take as granted a higher and more complex interaction between internal and external factors and they have researched the conditions and the factors which lead to the response of the persons to several types of internal and external inducements.
Two of the most celebrated content theories have been expressed by Abraham Maslow ( 1943 ) and Frederick Herzberg et Al. ( 1959 ). Despite the fact that, Maslow ‘s hierarchy needs theory has been criticized and has been characterized as a “ societal doctrine ” alternatively of a motive theory, it has affected many direction patterns such as wages policies and the occupation design.
( Huczynski and Buchanan, 2007 ) Sing the motive theory of Herzberg and his co-workers, Locke and Latham ( 2004 ) clarified that Herzberg ‘s motive theory chiefly dealt with the causes of work satisfaction and the possible ways that a occupation can be designed in order to increase the employee ‘s satisfaction and later his motive degrees. ( Locke and Latham, 2004 ) Overall, content theories have been criticized on the evidences that, they fail to take into history the fact that each individual thinks, makes determinations and Acts of the Apostless in a different manner from the others and they assume that people react in a cosmopolitan manner. ( Huczynski and Buchanan, 2007 )On the contrary, the procedure theories, two of the most celebrated have been presented Vroom ( 1964 ) and Locke and Latham ( 1990 ), take into consideration the process through which the internal elements of each individual may take to different results and behaviours. ( Bassett-Jones and Lloyd, 2005 ) In other words, the procedure theories differ from content theories at a critical point, which is the component of individualism in every pick and the “ societal influence ”.
( Huczynski and Buchanan, 2007 ) Harmonizing to Robbins ( 1993 ) as cited in Ramlall ( 2004 ) Vroom ‘s anticipation theory supported that every act is driven by the power of the outlook that the peculiar act will ensue in a specific result and the result ‘s desirableness. ( Ramlall, 2004 ) It can be clearly seen that, Vroom expressed his theory based on the premise that people choose to act after “ witting picks among options ”. ( Ramlall, 2004 )Apart from Vroom ‘s anticipation theory, it is besides worthy to advert the goal-setting theory introduced by Edwin Locke and Gary Latham ( 1990 ). As Huczynski and Buchanan ( 2007 ) defined goal-setting theory as motive theory in which it was stated that a individual ‘s motive is affected by the degree of trouble and specificity of the ends that he has to run into and by the feedback which is provided to him that allows him to be cognizant of his success of failure. ( Huczynski and Buchanan, 2007 ) Harmonizing to Klein et Al. ( 1999 ), the chief construct of this theory is that the more hard the end the higher the degree of motive.
They besides stated that: “ Committedness to specific and hard ends ” is an indispensable factor which influences motive. ( Klein et al., 1999 )Overall, from what has been described above we can see that the chief difference between content and procedure theories of motive is that the former does non acknowledge any difference between the manner that persons perceive things and are motivated and they take as given that people have the same demands and are motivated by the same things.
Perversely, the procedure theories have been analyzed based on the fact that motive is created through an single process during which each individual evaluates the best alternate action for him and it is besides stimulated by marks and purposes with a minimal grade of trouble and specificity.
3. LITERATURE REVIEW
In this subdivision of the research the relevant literature will be critically discussed by showing assorted surveies and researches sing the motive of the sales representative and how it can be stimulated by the gross revenues directors. Apart from analyzing the function of the gross revenues directors, assorted facets of the occupation design will be put under the range of scrutiny. Wherever it is possible there will be references in relation to the life insurance sector although the literature mentioning to motive in the insurance industry is limited and has non been examined in deepness.
3.1 Motivation of Salespeople in Different Career Stages
Cron ( 1984 ) reported that the gross revenues direction research has been chiefly interested in the ways that salespeople can be motivated in footings of higher attempt and enhanced public presentation during the assorted calling phases. ( Cron, 1984 ) As Cron et Al. ( 1988 ) pointed out, in a big figure of psychological and sociological researches it was found that in each calling phase persons have “ alone calling concerns, developmental undertakings, personal challenges, and psychological demands ” ( Cron et al., pg 79, 1988 )To be more precise, harmonizing to the study which they conducted it was found that, in each calling phase the gross revenues directors have to actuate the sales representative by utilizing different techniques. For case, Slocum and Cron ( 1985 ) highlighted that in the geographic expedition phase the sales representative is characterized by low “ personal committedness ” to his occupation. ( Slocum and Cron, 1985 ) So, the gross revenues director ‘s function is to stress the wagess that the sales representative can achieve through high public presentation and at the same clip to cover with the uncertainness that the sales representative feels sing his calling pick.
( Cron et al., 1988 ) In that manner, the new sales representative can be motivated and productive.Sing the constitution phase, at most instances the salespeople dressed ore on stabilising their callings. The end of being successful is the most of import and normally it is combined with “ a desire for publicity ”. ( Cron et al., 1988 ) As Cron et Al.
( 1988 ) stated publicity is a important measure at the “ personal success ladder. ” So, in order to excite motive in the sales representative, the gross revenues directors should hold as a precedence to “ pass on ” the demands for acquiring promoted. ( Cron et al., 1988 ) At the same clip, Levinson et Al.
( 1978 ) pointed out that assorted “ life-commitments ” such as matrimony, which may impact the demands of the gross revenues force, must be taken into history. ( Levinson et al., 1978 )Last, the sales representative who are in the care phase are defined as “ an aggressive calling orientation ”. ( Cron et al., pg 87, 1988 ) Cron et Al. ( 1988 ) identified that it is the nature of gross revenues that allows the gross revenues force to be “ originative and autonomous ”.
( Cron et al., 1988 ) However, it was found that most of the available wagess such as wage and success have been achieved. ( Cron et al., 1988 ) So, the gross revenues directors have to actuate their gross revenues force by offering them new and different inducements. It should be pointed out that the literature has a spread in the excess inducements which could be provided to salespeople at this phase.
3.2 Financial Incentives
The fiscal wagess have ever been considered as an of import facet of every type of work. Particularly, in the gross revenues industry the fiscal inducements are regarded as a powerful tool in actuating the sales representative.
Steinbrink ( 1978 ) stated that: “ compensation is the most of import component in a plan for the direction and motive of a field gross revenues force. ” ( Steinbrink, pg 111, 1978 ) Churchill et Al. ( 1982 ) reported in their research that the gross revenues motive literature is in understanding with the perceptual experience that the fiscal wagess are the primary and basic incentive of “ gross revenues attempt ”. On the contrary, they besides pointed out that: “ sole trust on wage as the basic incentive has been challenged on both theoretical and empirical evidences. ” ( Churchill et al.
, pg 114, 1982 )At this point, it is worthy of adverting that Lawler ( 1971 ) documented that payment might be less important to person that is extremely paid in comparing to person that is lower paid. ( Lawler, 1971 ) In assorted researches ( Centers and Bugental 1966, Kahn 1958, Porter 1961 and Ronan 1970 ), it was supported that a possible ground explicating why a individual ‘s valency for money is negatively correlated with the sum of his payment, would be that payment is valued less when employees reach higher places which are normally well-paid. ( Churchill et al., 1982 )With respect to the above mentioned, Churchill et Al. ( 1982 ) commented that the newer the sales representative is, the higher the possibility that he would be motivated by wage on the evidences that get downing degrees do non normally result in high satisfaction sing wage. ( Churchill et al., 1982 ) They besides stated that as the sales representative is rewarded for his attempt through fillips, committees and wage rises, his satisfaction with wage additions. Consequently, the valency for wage will be reduced and pay will no longer be an equal incentive.
So, other types of incentives should be enacted in order to avoid the diminution of the sales representative ‘s motive. ( Churchill et al., 1982 ) Last, Oliver ( 1977 ) conducted a study in a life insurance company in which it was found that there was a positive correlativity between the sales representative ‘s valency for money and his age and a negative correlativity between his valency for money and his satisfaction with wage. ( Oliver, 1977 )
3 Personal Goal-Setting, Competition and Motivation of the Salespeople
With respect to the end puting theory, the sales representatives who set high personal ends have more opportunities in executing efficaciously. ( Brown et al., 1998 ) In peculiar, Austin and Vancouver ( 1996 ) and Locke and Latham ( 1990 ) as cited in Brown et Al. ( 1998 ) pointed out that personal ends are critical in “ finding the strength, way, and continuity of purposive behaviour ”. ( Brown et al., pg 88, 1998 ) In the same context, Gollwitzer and Bargh ( 1996 ) defined personal ends as “ managers of action ”. ( Gollwitzer and Bargh, 1996 ) In peculiar, Chowdhury ( 1993 ) and Locke and Latham ( 1990 ) as cited in Brown et Al. ( 1998 ) indicated that the “ intermediate measure ” of accomplishing high degrees of public presentation is to “ put disputing personal ends ” for the sales representative.
( Brown et al., 1998 )An of import component, which was found to impact the procedure of goal-setting, is competition. Brewer ( 1994 ) reported a research that was undertaken by “ the Gallup Management Consulting Group ”, harmonizing to which the successful sales representative are characterized as “ rivals ”.
( Brown et al., pg 88, 1998 ) Additionally, Brown et Al. ( 1998 ) what leads sales representative in puting high ends is “ the combination of high trait fight and an organisational clime that is perceived as extremely competitory ”. ( Brown et al.
, pg 95, 1998 ) Overall, Brown et Al. ( 1998 ) highlighted that both the enlisting of competitory sales representatives and the development of direction patterns, which stimulate competition inside the organisation, can ensue in efficient end scene and enhanced motive and public presentation degrees. ( Brown et al., 1998 )
4 The Importance of the Gross saless Manager Role
Harmonizing to Rich ( 1997 ), “ successful sales representative are non born, they are made ”. ( Rich, pg 319, 1997 ) It could be said that, whether a sales representative is motivated or non depends extremely on his director and the techniques that he implements. Harmonizing to Tyagi ( 1985 ), the “ leading behaviour plays a critical function in heightening sales representative work motive.
” ( Tyagi, pg 77, 1985 ) As per Dubinsky ( 1999 ), old researches have pointed out that it is extremely important for the gross revenues director to happen out “ what triggers each sales representative ‘s behaviour. ” ( Dubinsky, 1999 ) For case, with respect to the research documents of Churchill et Al. ( 1979 ), Cron et Al. ( 1988 ) and Ford et Al.
( 1985 ), it has been proved that the significance of assorted facets of motive can differ across the gross revenues force. ( Dubinsky, 1999 ) to be more precise, a “ one size fits all motivational bundle ” might ensue in a peculiar degree of motive among the gross revenues forces but it would non be equal in order to accomplish the “ optimal ” degree of motive and the “ ultimate effectivity ” of the sales representative. ( Dubinsky, 1999 )Apart from the enforced motive techniques, the leading manner of the gross revenues director is besides highly of import and extremely influential sing the sales representative and his public presentation.
Jolson et Al. ( 1993 ) as cited in Dubinsky ( 1999 ) pointed out that the leading manner of the gross revenues director “ can hold a dramatic impact on the sales representative ‘s public presentation. ” ( Dubinsky, pg 14, 1999 ) In the same context, Walker, Churchill, and Ford ( 1977, 1979 ) stated that a sales representative public presentation is influenced by the supervising of the gross revenues director. ( Dubinsky, 1999 ) It can be clearly said that, the common statement of these researches was that “ the grade and quality of interaction between the gross revenues director and the sales representative affect the efficiency with which the gross revenues force performs. ( Dubinsky, 1999 ) In peculiar, Dubinsky et Al.
( 1994 ) highlighted that a sales representative ‘s public presentation relies on the degree of “ active engagement ” between him and his gross revenues director. ( Dubinsky et al., 1994 ) Furthermore, it is besides worthy of mentioning is the “ Pygmalion consequence ”, which harmonizing to Markin and Lillis ( 1975 ) has been defined as the phenomenon where the sales representative ‘s productiveness is strongly related to the “ outlooks ” that the gross revenues directors have for them.
( Markin and Lillis, 1975 )At this point, it would be utile to advert Rich ‘s research paper ( 1997 ) and the construct of “ function mold or leading by illustration ” which has been chiefly disregarded in the gross revenues direction literature. He argued that due to the nature of merchandising, which is complex and challenging, the gross revenues director should move as “ a function theoretical account ” for the sales representative in footings of offering to the latter a counsel sing the manner he should cover with the ambiguities of a gross revenues procedure. ( Rich, 1997 ) Frank Pacetta, a successful gross revenues director in Xerox, as cited in Rich ( 1997 ) pointed out that the “ personal illustration ” is really powerful. In peculiar, he stated that the most efficient manner for making productive sales representative is by demoing to them what it should be done. ( Rich, 1997 )Although “ function mold ” has been examined under the range of magnetic and leading direction theories, Rich ‘s purpose was to carry on a research in order to determine whether it influences positively the sales representative ‘ s public presentation. The consequences of his research showed that a gross revenues director who behaves as a “ function theoretical account ” will heighten the trust between himself and his sales representative and that sweetening will accordingly ensue in increased occupation satisfaction and public presentation. ( Rich, 1997 ) In other words, it could be said that sales representative will be motivated and run in a more effectual manner if they are managed by a director, who non merely manages them but he besides shows to them how to work by moving as one of them.Furthermore, worthy of mentioning is that Corcoran et Al.
( 1995 ) conducted a big scale study among a big figure of salespeople, gross revenues directors and gross revenues executives in which they found out that “ coaching ” is one of the most of import mean that an organisation can utilize in order to impact the public presentation of its gross revenues work force. ( Corcoran et al., 1995 ) They defined training as the process through which “ professional attitudes and behaviours are modeled ”. Furthermore, they clarified that a director who coaches, aims at “ keeping good resonance with the gross revenues squad and furthering unfastened communicating, coaction, creativeness, inaugural and appropriate hazard taking ”.
( Rich, pg 326, 1997 ) Undoubtedly, “ coaching ” is strongly connected with function mold and the creative activity of bonds of trust between the gross revenues director and the sales representative. ( Rich, 1997 )Undeniably, it is the sales representative ‘s duty to put to death their occupation undertakings. ( Dubinsky, 1999 ) However, the gross revenues directors have a major duty in actuating and steering their sales representative by utilizing the most appropriate manner. Overall, the success or failure of the gross revenues force in a long-run position is “ necessarily straight traceable ” to the techniques that are implemented by the gross revenues directors every bit good as their leading manner. ( Dubinsky, 1999 )
3.5 Training of gross revenues force
Christiansen et Al. ( 1996 ) pointed out that developing plays a critical function in the “ the initial and the on-going ” development of the sales representative. ( Christiansen et al.
, 1996 ) Harmonizing to Dubinsky ( 1996 ) and Churchill et Al. ( 1997 ), that is the ground why many organisations make important investings for the preparation of their salesforce. ( Dubinsky, 1996, Churchill et al., 1997 ).
Walker et Al. ( 1977 ) stated that preparation can be defined as an organisation attempt to concentrate the assorted types of cognition that one additions through experience into a short span of clip. ( Walker et al., 1977 )In peculiar, Dubinsky ( 1999 ) stated that the preparation Sessionss are designed in order to better the “ trainees ‘ work-related accomplishment degrees. ” ( Dubinsky, 1999 ) To be more precise, he specified that salespeople need to get a overplus of cognition related to the merchandise, the company and the client and accomplishments such as adaptiveness and gross revenues presentation in order to be able to execute expeditiously. ( Dubinsky, 1999 ) Furthermore, there are many researches which have pointed out the sorts of acquisition that are gained through preparation. For case, Walker et Al.
( 1977 ) reported that gross revenues developing can be viewed as a “ forum ” for clear uping the sales representative ‘s function truth and cut downing function “ struggle ” ( Walker et al., 1977 ), bettering sales representative ‘s “ procedural ” cognition ( Leigh and McGraw, 1989 ), heightening their ability to be adaptative ( Weitz et al., 1986 ) and assisting them in going adept during gross revenues presentations ( Jolson, 1975 ).
Another issue that it should be raised is that, harmonizing to Ingram et Al. ( 1992 ) all the factors that are responsible for ensuing in the failure of the sales representative can be handled through preparation or motive. ( Ingram et al., 1992 ) They stated that preparation is considered to be good on the evidences that it provides to the sales representative the indispensable cognition of the merchandise and the market in general, in order to be sent adequately prepared into the field. ( Ingram et al., 1992 ) Harmonizing to Dubinsky ( 1999 ) “ ill-trained ” sales representative will be defenceless and vulnerable to the market challenges. ( Dubinsky, 1999 ) Ingram et Al. ( 1992 ) besides pointed out that sing public presentation, there are some features which are “ capable to managerial influence ” such as function perceptual experiences and other personal features such as matrimonial jobs which can non be influenced.
( Ingram et al., 1992 ) However, the possible lacks in the “ influenceable ” features were proved to lend more to the failure of the sales representative. The deduction for the gross revenues directors is that they can play an “ active ” function in bettering the countries which are perceived to be responsible for the failure of the gross revenues force by utilizing appropriate motive and preparation methods. ( Ingram et al., 1992 )Last, despite the significance of preparation, the research is limited sing the manner that developing influences the gross revenues force ‘s public presentation. ( Honeycutt et al., 1995 ) In peculiar, Churchill et Al. ( 1997 ) reported that: “ really small research has been done to find what consequence, if any, gross revenues preparation has on the gross revenues force ”.
( Churchill et al., pg, 450, 1997 )
4.1 The Type of Research
The research scheme was qualitative research due to the fact that as Bryman and Bell ( 2007 ) pointed out: “ qualitative research can be construed as a research scheme that emphasizes words instead than quantification in aggregation and the analysis of informations.
” ( Bryman and Bell, pg 28, 2007 ) To be more precise, the research inquiries which apply on motive theories can non be addressed by utilizing quantitative informations such as measurings, per centums and diagrams on the evidences that the informations could non be analyzed in deepness. Sing the qualitative research, it should besides be pointed out that, the qualitative research ‘s epistemic place is interpretative since it gives precedence to the “ apprehension of the societal universe through an scrutiny of the reading of that universe by its participants. ” ( Bryman and Bell, pg 402, 2007 ) Additionally, its ontological place has been defined as constructionist, which indicates that “ societal belongingss are results of the interactions between persons.
” ( Bryman and Bell, pg 402, 2007 ) In other words, the qualitative type of research emphasizes on the societal histrions and their interaction and in the peculiar research paper, the chief involvement is around the gross revenues directors and their interaction with the sales representative through the usage of motive assorted techniques.
4.2 The Qualitative Method
The qualitative method which was selected was semi-structured interviews. As Bryman and Bell ( 2007 ) indicated: “ the interview is the most widely employed method in qualitative research. ” ( Bryman and Bell, pg 472, 2007 ) A important advantage of the interview method that was highlighted by Bryman and Bell ( 2007 ) is that the interview procedure “ entails the Reconstruction of events by inquiring interviewees to believe back over how a certain series of events unfolded in relation to a current state of affairs. ” ( Bryman and Bell, pg 504, 2007 ) Furthermore, they besides indicated that by utilizing interviews the research worker is able to direct the focal point of the interviewee in a specific state of affairs alternatively of losing clip by roll uping irrelevant informations compared to the participant observation method. ( Bryman and Bell, 2007 )However, it should besides be pointed out that when interviews are being used “ the realistic accent ” is lost.
In other words, questioning as a process disrupts the “ normal flow of the members ‘ events ” due to the fact that they are non in their “ natural environments ” when they are interviewed. ( Bryman and Bell, 2007 ) Furthermore, what has been besides denoted as a drawback of the interview procedure is that “ the interview relies chiefly on verbal behaviour ”. ( Bryman and Bell, 2007 ) To be more precise, the “ kineticss ” of a state of affairs can non be captured and Whyte ( 1953 ) as cited in Bryman and Bell ( 2007 ) indicated that it is about impossible to “ remember how determinations evolved as portion of a societal procedure. ” ( Bryman and Bell, pg 503, 2007 )The ground why semi-structured interviews were considered to be more appropriate is due to the flexibleness that they offer.
Specifically in semi-structured interviews, the interviewer uses an “ interview usher ” which is consisted of “ a series of inquiries which are more general in their frame of mention ” in comparing to those that are being used in structured interviews. ( Bryman and Bell, pg 213, 2007 ) Furthermore, as clarified by Bryman and Bell ( 2007 ) : “ the interviewer has some latitude to inquire farther inquiries in response to what are seen as important answers. ” ( Bryman and Bell, pg 213, 2007 ) In other words, semi-structured interviews provide more freedom to the interviewees to show their ain sentiments and portion their experience by adverting real-life illustrations and state of affairss. By utilizing this method, some points which may hold slipped the head of the interviewer will be mentioned by the interviewee during the treatment.
4.3 The Background of the Company
Due to the fact that the peculiar research has an explorative nature, the informations were collected through empirical research. The research took topographic point in a Grecian life-insurance company. The peculiar company is an attached house of a transnational insurance company. It has been runing in Greece since 1964 and has a big figure of subdivisions which are spread all over Greece. It has a broad assortment of life insurance plans that can be summarized in the undermentioned three classs: Life, Accident & A ; Health every bit good as Pension Plans. The research was targeted at the gross revenues directors of several subdivisions and more specifically the involvement of the research was chiefly focused on their positions and experiences in footings of the possible ways that the agents are motivated since they enter the company and during all the phases of their callings.
4.4 The Interview Process
The interviews were taken from the 21st of June until the 25th of June. The interviews were tape recorded and lasted for 30 proceedingss on norm. The work force, which was interviewed, was consisted of the main selling officer who is responsible for the general motive guidelines of the company in footings of the motive techniques which are implemented by the gross revenues directors. Furthermore, an interview was taken by the director who is responsible for the web of gross revenues and its support in footings of fiscal wagess.
Interviews were besides taken by 5 gross revenues directors each of which have many old ages of working experience and are responsible for pull offing and actuating about 7-8 agents. Furthermore, it is worthy to adverting that each gross revenues director has been an agent himself before achieving the place of gross revenues director. Last, 2 out of 4 of the most successful agents of the company were interviewed.The chief inquiries of the interviews were based on the assortment of techniques that the gross revenues directors use in order to actuate their gross revenues work force. To be more precise, the interview ‘s construction was formed by chief inquiries sing the importance of the fiscal inducements through all phases of an agent ‘s calling, the necessity of utilizing different motive techniques depending on the agent ‘s age, the most appropriate motive techniques in order to keep the high productiveness degree of an agent or in order to actuate him into accomplishing even higher public presentation criterions and in conclusion, which motive techniques are considered to be more appropriate in order to heighten the productiveness of low performing artists.