: The basic idea ofthis paper is to create a robotic arm which has the ability to perform multiplefunction one at a time. The secondary objective behind our project is to makesuch project available at cheaper cost.A Robotic Arm is a type ofmechanical arm, having similar function to human arm with good flexibility forindustrial application. The links of such a manipulator are connected by jointsallowing either rotational motion or translational displacement. The links ofthe manipulators can be considered to form a motion.
The terminus of thiskinematic chain of the manipulator is called the clampers and it is similar tohuman hand.The purpose of project to performvarious task using different modules, which includes – Robot is a derivative of Czech word ‘robota’ whichimplies “forced laborer” then later a Russian comic writer Isaac Asimov conveyedthe word robotics. From there on various different developments are beingsuccessfully done till date in the field of robotics in the form of teleportedmanipulators, humanoids, micro robots etc. as the trend of the industry is movingfrom the current state of automation to robotization. Thus, the robottechnology is advancing rapidly.
Now a day the most commonly used robots inindustry is a robotic manipulator or a robotic arm. The end of the arm isconnected to the end-effectors. The end-effect or may be a tool and its fixtureor a clamper or any other device to do the work. The end-effect or is similarto the human hand with or without fingers.
Nowadays, robotsare increasingly being integrated into working tasks to replace humansspecially to perform the repetitive task. In general, robotics can be dividedinto two areas, industrial and service robotics. International Federation ofRobotics (IFR) defines a service robot as a robot which operates semi- or fullyautonomously to perform services useful to the well-being of humans andequipment, excluding manufacturing operations.
These robots are currently inuse in many fields of applications including office, military, hospitaloperations, dangerous environment and agriculture. On the other hand it mightbe difficult or harmful for humans to do some specific tasks like handling explosivechemicals, defusing bombs or in worst case, to pick and place the bomb awayfrom civilian areas and for repeated pick and place action in industries.Therefore, a robot can be replaced human to do work.
Mainblocks of this system consists of SMPSused as power supply, ATMEGA328 controller, 3 stepper motors, 3 Easy driverseach connected to stepper motors for X,Y, Z axis movement respectively.Frompower supply we get two voltages i.e. +5volt and +12 volt. 5volt which isrequired to ATMEGA328, Easy drivers whereas +12volt supply is required tostepper motors. RESET is connected to5vsupply through 10k ohms resistors to pull up the voltage thus it act as a pullup resistors.
The Stepper motorNEMA17 is a four phase, unipolar, permanent magnet stepper motor. It is astandard size, 200-steps-per-revolution, NEMA 17 (1.7 in. square footprint, 5mm shaft diameter), 12 V motor. This motor, like most stepper motors is apermanent magnet motor.
The Mosaic stepper is typical of common high resolutionmotors – a full revolution requires 200 steps, while each step turns the shaftonly 1.8° for a full step, or 0.9° in half-stepping mode.
This sized motor iscommonly used in household appliances, medical equipment, stage lightingdevices, and in various industrial control applications.TheG-code in form of NC file (Numeric Code) from computer is interface withcontroller using FTDI 232 module i.e. serial to USB converter.
The output ofFTDI is given to pin no.2 and 3 i.e. RXD and TXD pins of ATMEGA328. The outputof ATMEGA328 is given to three Easy Drivers. The Easydriver V4.
3is used to drive the motor as the controller output power at its pin is notenough to drive the motor. TheEasy Driver V4.3 consists of 16 pins. Four pins are used for 2 stepper motorcoil i.e. coil A and coil B. Two pins for input 5volt supply i.
e. VCC and GND.Three pins are used for STEP input, DIR; GND.
STEP is used for micro stepping. TheDIR is direction input pin which will rotate stepper in respective direction.Accordingto the given dimensions Easy drivers or drilling machine will move. Whenoperation of motors is completed the dimensions on pc will roll of to again itsinitial value i.e.
set position or zero value.Thusthe movement in required shape or direction can be observed at the clamper.Also the clamper can be replaced by other modules in order to enable morenumber of applications by the robotic arm for example 3D printing, Laserengraving, cutting, etc.Thus themovement in required shape or direction can be observed at the clamper.
Alsothe clamper can be replaced by other modules in order to enable more number of applicationsby the robotic arm for example the clamper can be replaced by an extruderassembly to enable 3D printing application by the robotic arm. Similarly the clampercan be replaced by the Laser engraver to enable the laser engraving applicationby the robotic arm. Hence, such kind of multiple applications requiring highprecision can be done by this robotic arm.
Hence the designed Robotic arm will beable to pick and place objects with high precision. Also the robotic arm willbe so flexible that the clampers can be replaced and convert the robotic arminto an complex machine like 3D printer, Laser engraver, etc. STEP 1: Start theprocedure.
STEP 2: From serialInterface execute G-Code command to provide translation to the robotic arm.STEP 3: Define constant,variable and directions for movement of robotic armSTEP 4: If arm is not insafe position stop the processSTEP 5: If arm is in thesafe position then select the axis of robotic arm to be movedSTEP 6: Get the value ofall the axis of arm in their respective buffer and runSTEP 7: If the targetposition is reached stop the process else move to step 4The main purpose of the Robotic Arm is to provide multitaskingsolution to increasing industrial need of performing various operations using asingle system. For emulating such a requirement it was necessary to work on thevarious need and applications of industry and thereby designing the structureof robotic arm according to it. The Robotic Arm is designed to performmultitasks such as 3D printing, CNC, Laser engraving, pick and place. Thedesigning for Robotic Arm required studying GRBL controller an open source toolfor CNC.
Thus, in this work weproposed to design a project named Robotic Arm for Multifunction which willhelp out the industry with multitasking solutions1. Medical – Pair of roboticarm can be used for surgeries and even for burning the tissues affected bycancer without effecting good tissues 2. Military – Robotic arm canalso be used in military applications for defusing bomb, tracking, etc.
3. Industry automation – Multiplerobotic arm placed on assembly line can be controlled remotely by applicationof IOT to increase productivityFurther whole system can be made so flexiblethat it can be controlled even by an mobile phone over Bluetooth or wifi link