MotherboardThe motherboard is a PCBthat is found in all computers.
The motherboard allows communication throughdifferent parts of a computer, like the Central processing unit and the memory.The Motherboard is also used to connect other components and peripherals. Themotherboard receives power directly from the Power supply and allows manythings to be directly connected to it such as the CPU, RAM, dedicated graphicscard and M.2 NVMe Solid state drives. There are other things that are inputtedinto the motherboard with connectors like hard drives and solid-state drives. ProcessorA Processor or CPU (Central ProcessingUnit) is a part of a computer that carries out instructions from a computerprograms.
Processors get instructions from programs to-do and the processordoes them by performing basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/outputoperations. There are many different parts to a CPU to main part is thearithmetic logic unit or ALU which performs arithmetic and logic operations. BIOSThe BIOS or (Basic Input/ Output System) isa non-volatile firmware used to perform various tasks to hardware during thebootup of a computer. You can do many different things in the BIOS likechanging the fan speed of certain components in your computer. Overclockingvarious parts of your computer and changing the boot settings of your computerfor things like installing new operating systems. The BIOS comes pre-installedon each motherboard.SATAhard drive controller modesSATA is a computer bus interface thatconnects multiple different bus adapters and mass storage devices together suchas hard drives, optical drives and solid-state drives.
There are many differentadvantages of using SATA compared to older methods. Some of the advantages ofhaving SATA is that it has reduced cable size and cost.SATA has many different controller modeslike (IDE, RAID and AHCI) Another controller mode that SATA harddrive has is RAID. Raid stands for Redundant Array of Independent Disks. RAIDis technology that combines multiple physical hard drives or storage devicestogether in a logical way to provide data redundancy, performance improve orboth. There are many different levels of raid which as the level increases theamount of hard drives needed increases and the security of the data increases.
The different layers have different ways of storing the data and distributingthe data across the hard drives.AHCI or Advanced Host controller interfaceis a technical standard that was made by intel that requires the operation ofSATA host bus adapters in a non-implementation-specific manner which transfers databetween host system memory and attached storage devices InternalMemory – ROMROM is a type of non-volatile memory. It isextremely hard to modify data that is stored in the ROM, so it is mainly usedto store firmware on. Most firmware that is stored on the ROM relates to sometype of hardware that is likely to have frequent updates.DifferentPortsComputer ports are ports on the computerthat are used to connect different peripherals to. That either work as aninput/output device or allow another computer to interact with it.
There mostcommon uses for a computer port is using your monitor. SpecialisedCards – Graphic CardSpecialised card are usually graphics orvideo cards which is an expansion card connected to the motherboard. The videocard generates many images to be displayed on the monitor. Inside of the videocard there is a graphical processing unit or GPU.
Video cards are not limitedto simple image output which is why sometimes people buy dedicated video cardswhich takes stress off the CPU.HardDrivesHard drives are non-volatile storagemeaning that they can store data even when turned off. Hard drives are storagedevices that stores data magnetically. The hard drive uses multiplemagnetically coated disks that rotate around as magnetic heads read and writedata to them.
Data is stored in a random-access manner meaning that parts ofdata can be stored anywhere on the hard drive and can be retrieved.PowerSupplyA power supply or PSU is the main componentof the computer as it allows it to have power to run. It does this byconverting power from the mains (in AC) to low voltage DC power that is able topower internal components in the machine.PeripheralsPeripherals are devices on a computer thatare either an INPUT device which allows the user to input information to thecomputer or an output device which allows the computer to display informationto the computer. There are some peripherals that are both input and outputdevices such as touch screens on a computer. Some examples of input devices aredevices like a computer mouse, a keyboard and a microphone. Some examples ofoutput devices are things like a monitor, speakers and printers.StorageStorage on a computer is used to storedata.
Some storage devices are volatile meaning that if the computer is poweredoff all data that is stored on that device is lost whereas some devices arenon-volatile meaning that data stored on the device is not lost when poweredoff. TwistedPair CablesTwisted pair cables are a method of cablingin which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together so that theelectromagnetic interference from external sources is stopped. The twodifferent conductors carry opposite signals and the destination detects thedifferent between the two. There are a lot of advantages and disadvantages ofusing Twisted Pair cables.
One of the disadvantages of using Twisted PairCables is that the casing of the cable is relatively thin meaning that is caneasily be damaged and doesn’t have a second insulator like other cables. Someof the advantages of using Twisted pair cables is that they are very flexiblemeaning that they are easy to work with. Windows 10SecurityWindows also has an inbuilt anti-viruscalled Windows defender which includes real time protection. Windows 10 alsohas another inbuilt program called firewall which provides packet filtering andmonitors and controls the outgoing network traffic.
The firewall also lets theuser set up specific policy’s and determines which networks and trust and areuntrusted.MachineManagementWindows 10 has lots of machine managementprograms like task manager, which allows the user to view things about theircomputer. Windows also automatically downloads new updates to keep you up todate with new updates.PeripheralManagementWindows 10 manages peripherals byautomatically updating the drivers for the devices and also allowing you tochange settings within the device like changing the resolution of a monitor orchanging the DPI of a mouse.FileManagementWindows has an inbuilt program called fileexplorer which allows you to easily move through file directories through a GUIand allows you to easily move files from different folders, delete and createfiles. FeaturesAbilityto customiseWindows 10 allows the user to customisemany things like the desktop background, the colour of the task bar and windowbars. Windows 10 also allows you to use custom fonts.
You can also change thingslike the start-up background.SecurityWindows allows security like biometricauthentication by allowing the user to use face recognition and iris scans tounlock their device instead of having to enter their passwords. Windows 10stores the passwords of the users locally and uses asymmetric encryption.Windows 10 allows users to set up policies for automatic encryption of sensitivedata. Mac OSSecurityMac OS has many different securityfeatures. One security feature is sandboxing. Sandboxing protects thecomponents of your computer and your information by isolating apps fromcritical components of your computer. This means even if your computer does getcompromised your computer and data can’t get damaged.
Mac OS also hasprotection against phishing websites. Safari can detect if a website is fakeand is trying to get your personal information and blocks the site.FileManagementMac OS has its own file management programcalled Apple File System or APFS. It is made to make things like creating,deleting and duplicating files much easier. It has a built in encryption systemwith provides crash safe protections and data backup on the go.MachineManagement PeripheralManagementMac OS has similar Peripheral Management asWindows as it automatically installs new drivers for devices plugged into thecomputer and also allows the user to control certain settings for the devices.But unlike windows most Mac devices needed to be bought exclusively for themac.
FeaturesAbilityto customise Unlike widows the Mac OS is very limited onwhat you can do to customise it unless you download additional programs fromthe internet. If you were to download programs from the internet you coulddownload customizable skins for the software which allows you to change things likeicon colours and skins. UtilitySoftware –Utility software is software that usuallycomes with the operating system. The software usually helps maintain, analyse configureor optimise the computer. Although the utility software often comespreinstalled with the software it is not considered part of the operatingsystem as there are many different alternatives online that users usuallyinstall. Windows 10Some examples of utility software that comeswith windows 10 is software like